成果報告書詳細
管理番号20110000000911
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 省水型・環境調和型水循環プロジェクト 水循環要素技術研究開発 高効率難分解性物質分解技術の開発 うち、新機能生物利用技術(H21-H23)
公開日2011/6/7
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名株式会社日立プラントテクノロジー
プロジェクト番号P09011
部署名環境部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1.研究開発の内容および成果
課題(a)「新機能微生物(アナモックス菌)の培養・維持」
(a)-1 中温型アナモックス菌の培養・維持
嫌気性アンモニア酸化細菌(アナモックス菌)による廃水処理システムを構築するためには,基本となるアナモックス菌を培養・維持する必要がある。1.0g-SS/日以上のアナモックス菌を培養することを目標として,大型培養装置による培養・回収試験を行った。その結果,最大1.2g-SS/日以上のアナモックス菌を培養できることを確認し,目標を満足する結果を得た。現在,実証試験に供給するアナモックス菌の大量培養に着手し,培養を継続している。
(a)-2 低温型アナモックス菌の集積培養アナモックス菌を用いた廃水処理システムを,低水温条件に適用させる方法として,低水温下で活性の高い新しいアナモックス菌の培養について検討した。活性汚泥や窒素汚染のある環境サンプルを全国5 ヶ所から採取し,合成排水を用いた集積培養を検討した。その結果,いずれの系からもアナモックス活性が確認でき,アナモックス菌の集積培養に成功した。
集積したアナモックス菌について,16S rDNA解析に基づいた遺伝子解析を行った結果(図1),従来のアナモックス菌(Cluster 3,5)とは異なる新しいアナモックス菌(Cluster1,2,4)が培養できていることが確認された(課題(f))。現在,継続して培養を行っており,大量培養と,排水処理への適用性について検討する予定である。
英文要約In the present study, novel nitrogen removal system using anammox (anaerobicammonium oxidation) bacteria has been developing for treatment of nitrogen industrial effluents, which are important processes in the water cycle. Conventionally, ammonia is treated biologically by nitrification/denitrification system. However, the denitrification process must be supplied with an additional organic carbon source, entailing higher operating costs. In the mid-1990s, an alternative process of nitrogen removal was reported, the so-called anammox. Since ammonium was used as electron donor for denitrification, anammox reaction does not require any addition of a hydrogen donor such as methanol. Thus, the anammox process can reduce energy for aeration by half and remarkably reduce the amount of methanol used for the denitrification.
Our final goal is to develop the nitrogen removal process using anammox bacteria which can operate under low temperature. It has been reported that cultivation of anammox bacteria itself is quite difficult. We succeeded in the cultivation of novel anammox bacteria using continuous feeding reactor under low temperature. Moreover, it was cleared that optimum temperature was around 20 °C.
Next, technologies to immobilize the anammox bacteria are required, because growth rate of anammox bacteria is extremely low. We applied gel entrapment technique developed for immobilization of nitrifying bacteria to anammox bacteria. In continuous feeding test, high nitrogen removal performance of 1.0 kg-N/m3/d was observed at 15 °C.
In order to understand and optimize microbial community, microbiological analyses were performed. From 16S rRNA analysis, novel species of Planctomycete were confirmed in the enrichment anammox sludge. To identify the presence of these anammox bacteria, FISH analysis was performed. FISH image of anammox bacteria clearly showed anammox bacteria were immobilized in gel cubes at high density.
Development of novel aerobic denitrification systems using simultaneous nitritation and anammox in single reactors are now investigating. Two types of reactor were applied for the reactors. One system is that gel cubes which are both immobilized nitrifying bacteria and anammox bacteria, respectively, were used. Another one is SNAP process using fixed bed for anammox and nitrifying biofilms. High nitrogen removal performance of 1.4 kg-N/m3/d was observed under aerobic reactor.
In order to show the efficiency of the nitrogen removal systems, design and installation of the pilot scale reactor was completed. This demonstration plant will operate for industrial nitrogen wastewater treatment, in near feature.
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