成果報告書詳細
管理番号20110000000914
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 省水型・環境調和型水循環プロジェクト 水循環要素技術研究開発 革新的膜分離技術の開発 うち分離膜の細孔計測技術の開発及び標準化に向けた性能評価手法の開発(H21-H24)
公開日2011/7/28
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所 一般財団法人造水促進センター
プロジェクト番号P09011
部署名環境部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1.研究開発の内容及び成果等 本事業は、陽電子消滅法によるRO膜及びNF膜の有する細孔を計測する技術を確立し、陽電子消滅法で測定された細孔と分離性能との関係を比較することにより、RO膜及びNF膜の膜評価に関しての標準化に向けた研究開発を行うことを目的とし、陽電子消滅法によるRO膜及びNF膜の有する細孔の計測、RO膜及びNF膜の分離性能の測定を行い、RO膜及びNF膜における細孔と分離性能との相関を求めるとともに、RO膜及びNF膜の細孔測定に関する標準化に向けて研究開発を行う。
英文要約For developing a highly-reliable nanoporosimetry for separation membranes, we have aimed at establishing a protocol for measuring free-volume holes of the active layer in separation membranes as well as a technical criterion applicable to the characterization of RO membranes by means of the low-energy positron annihilation lifetime and gamma-ray techniques. In order to optimize the condition of positron lifetime measurements for RO membranes, a reference material was selected for the correction of the background signals of the obtained lifetime data, and positron incident energies in the positron annihilation measurements were examined for the characterization of the active layer in the RO membranes in this fiscal year. Based on the obtained optimal condition, low-energy pulsed-positron annihilation lifetime measurements were carried out for commercially-available polyimide RO membranes.: In order to elucidate relationship between the nanopore size and performance of RO and NF separation membranes, their separation performance with various conditions of pressure and solute was examined. We also examined the membrane performance of these RO membranes with the transport equation for the permeation of RO membranes proposed by Kedem and Katchahalsky. To evaluate each RO membrane for desalination, we prepared two-component solution of n-propanol, iso-propanol, ethylene glycol and urea, 1000mg/l of each in 0.1wt% sodium chloride solution, individually. As a result, the rejection of NaCl was almost the same in the mixture of n-propanol, iso-propanol and ethylene glycol with that of pure NaCl solution. However, the rejection declined in the solution of sodium chloride solution with urea. In the meantime, as to the rejection of organic materials, the rejection became higher in the mixture with sodium chloride than in the pure solution of organic materials.: The test method of membrane performance evaluation of the RO and the NF membrane was provided in Japan Industrial Standards(JIS) and American Society for Testing and Materials standard (ASTM ), used solute as NaCl, MgSO4, and 2-propanols. The NF membrane used to reuse of waste-water or to remove the hardness element etc. is regulations, is necessary regulations concerning the NF membrane, and thought to have to maintain regulations concerning the NF membrane for standardization in recent years. Moreover, it turned out to have to examine the test method of membrane performance evaluation that tempered with these because there were RO membrane for the seawater desalination and a difference of the separation mechanism about low pressure RO membrane and the NF membrane. It is necessary to select several kinds of model solute to standardize the method of examining the performance of low pressure RO and the NF membrane. The candidate who adds it as an evaluation material should select the neutral material and the organic matters such as alcohol and saccharides.
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