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�p���v��Piezoelectric materials play an important role in electrical devices. Most piezoelectric devices are composed of lead zirconium titanate (PZT)-based piezoelectric ceramics because of their excellent piezoelectric properties. However, PZT ceramics contain a large amount of PbO; therefore, lead-free piezoelectric materials to replace PZT have recently been required from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Piezoelectric strain constant, d33, is one of the fundamental parameters defining the piezoelectric activity of a material, basically the higher the d33 the more active the material is. Measurement of the d33 can be realized in several ways varying in accuracy and simplicity. The most reliable method of determining the d33 coefficient is to electrically excite a resonance in a sample, called resonance and antiresonance method. Fundamentally, the resonance and antiresonance frequencies are given by the sample geometry and the (33) vibration mode requires longer cylinders poled along the longer direction. Therefore, the power source with high electric field is needed for the poling treatment. This is not always suitable for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with high coercive field. A quasi static method (often called Berlincourt method or d33 meter method) is simple; a small oscillating force is applied to the sample and the charge output is measured and divided by the applied force amplitude for determining the d33 value. Therefore, this method is supposed to be sample geometry independent. The simplicity of the technique has been its downfall, in that anyone can easily build up their own system, and there are a growing number of commercial systems. Under this situation, many researchers use this technique to determine the d33 value of the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. However, there are currently no standards for this measurement method, and consequently each system performs the measurement slightly differently. This means that, although the results from these systems are good for measuring within a batch or batch to batch variability, external comparisons usually produce a large variability. This has led to a loss in confidence in these measurement results. In this project, inter-laboratory tests about the quasi static method have been conducted using the some lead-free and PZT-based ceramics by various commercialized d33 meters. The round-robin test among 8 laboratories indicated systematic differences in d33 values between results from different laboratories. For example, the thin disc of soft-PZT ceramics showed huge deviations in d33 values, and a loading geometry (loading probe shape) and clamping force also influenced to the d33 values. From these results, our committee members can simply say that d33 values from d33 meters have large variability in some specific conditions and standardization should be required to improve the reliability and confidence in these measurement results.
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