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�p���v��Several current reports indicate that various electric or electronic devices occasionally may cause malfunctions in active implantable medical devices (AIMD) such as implantable cardiac pacemakers and cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) through electromagnetic coupling (interference). One well-known example is the microwave electromagnetic interference (EMI) created by active cellular phones. Some reports have experimentally confirmed that some radio frequency identification (RFID) interrogators might trigger an AIMD malfunction. Among them, a FDA report concluded that the clinical risk is low. On the other hand, this technical report shows partially different results. It is probable that the inconsistencies are mainly due to the differences of the devices tested in both experiments. Any standard methodology for evaluating the EMI from RFID interrogators on AIMDs is not available at present which recognizes a consistency. However, this technical paper provides fundamental information which can be used when investigating or decreasing EMI risk which is currently needed in present situations.
The observed characteristics of the EMI were shown to depend upon the transmission radio wave specifications, the antenna performance of the interrogator, AIMD type, and AIMD operation mode setting. The typical cases indicate that the EMI is most likely to occur directly in front of the interrogator antenna.
This technical report describes the technologies needed to implement experimental EMI evaluation methods and a method of mitigating the EMI from RFID interrogators on AIMDs. Some experimental evaluation results for typical devices are also presented. In this report, since an EMI event is estimated based upon an engineering stand point, for example whether or not any change in the pacing behavior occurred, the EMI experimental results shown by this report do not necessarily reflect direct risk to patients. The clinical significance estimations remain to be discussed in future studies.
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