成果報告書詳細
管理番号20110000001328
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 木質バイオマスからの高効率バイオエタノール生産システムの研究開発
公開日2011/8/5
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名国立大学法人京都大学 国立大学法人鳥取大学 日本化学機械製造株式会社 トヨタ自動車株式会社
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等
本プロジェクトは、木質系バイオマスからバイオエタノールを生産するための高効率前処理法の開発を目的とした「選択的白色腐朽菌-マイクロ波ソルボリシスによる木材酵素糖化前処理法の研究開発」と、同じくバイオマスエネルギー先導技術研究開発のプロジェクト「新規エタノール発酵細菌のゲノム情報に基づくリグノセルロース連続糖化並行発酵技術の研究開発」と平成20年度より合体し、加速的先導プロジェクトとして前処理からエタノール生産に至る一貫プロセスの研究開発を実施している。
平成22年度では、SCF(Saccharification and Co-Fermentation 糖化並行発酵:前処理した木質原料からの糖化液調製と糖化液の発酵を2段階で行い、バイオエタノールを製造するプロセス)おける各プロセスの検討、最適化を行うとともに、ベンチプラントの建設および運転を行った。平成23年度ではこれらの実施項目を基に、SSCF(Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation 同時糖化並行発酵:前処理した木質原料に糖化酵素と発酵菌を添加して、糖化と並行発酵を同時に行いバイオエタノールを製造するプロセス)化への改良、評価検討を実施する。
英文要約Title: Development of Elemental Technology for Bioenergy Conversion: High Efficiency Bioenergy Conversion Project. Development of Bioethanol Production Process from Woody Biomass Based on High Efficient Solvolysis and Ethanologenic Bacteria (FY2010)
In this project, a new pretreatment system applicable to a wide range of woody biomass is being developed using white rot fungi and microwave solvolysis. Novel ethanologenic bacteria capable of producing ethanol directly from woody biomass at a low cost and in a more energy-efficient manner are also being developed.
In FY2010, a large-scale fungal treatment system was developed. Pretreatment efficiency of the cultivation system including cost balance was evaluated. Accelerating effects of the large scale cultivation system on enzymatic saccahrification were close to those obtained by labo-scale cultivation.
Microwave reactions in aqueous media were developed for pretreatments of woody biomass, and their reaction conditions were optimized. In the pretreatment system a water-insoluble lignin, cellulose and a black liquor containing xylose and a water-soluble lignin were separated. To recover the water-soluble lignin from the black liquor, a new solid-state extraction method was developed. For enzymatic saccharification, cocktails of cellulolytic enzymes and additives decreasing non-productive binding of cellulase on pretreated biomass were screened.
A continuous microwave solvolysis reactor for a bench scale bioethanol plant was developed in FY2009. In FY2010 irradiation and sample feeding systems were improved by simulation and microwave irradiation experiments.
The research group of Tottori Univ. has been breeding novel ethanologenic bacteria capable of producing ethanol directly from woody biomass at a low cost and in a more energy-efficient manner. In FY2010, high-performance fermentation process of eucalyptus saccharized solutions has been developed.
1) Development of high performance fermentation process: The fermentation test in the bench scale (30-liter jar fermentor) of eucalypus saccharized solution prepared with the microwave solvolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis was achieved by using the genetically engineered ethanologenic bacteria with the theoretical ethanol yield of 95%.
2) Breeding of ethanolgenic bacteria capable of saccharifying celloologosaccharides and cellulose: Of more than 30 bacterial cellulase genes, unique endoglucanase (EG) and β-glucosidase (BGL) gene were selected and introduced into the bacteria. Almost of enzyme genes expressed were secreted through the inner membrane in the bacteria, and the recombinant strains could produce a small amount of ethanol from the barley-glucans
3) Breeding of ethanologenic bacteria for SSCF of lignocellulosic biomass: The co-fermentation ability of the recombinant strain carrying genes encoding xylose- and mannose-catabolic enzymes was stable under repeated cultivations, and the strain could co-ferment the black liqueur of eucalyptus to produce ethanol with the theoretical yield of 87%.
4) Optimization of SSCF process (Improvement of stress tolerance): On basis of DNA microarray analysis, we found several genes responding to acid stress in Zb. palmae cells. We also focused on the amino acid biosynthetic pathways responding to acid stress.
In FY2010, a bench scale plant for bioethanol production was constructed. Using the newly developed bench scale plant, wood chips of Eucalyptus were treated. The pretreated biomass (175 Kg) obtained was separated after microwave irradiation of Eucalyptus wood, and saccharified with cellulolytic enzymes at the substrate concentration of 20% to yield 12% conc. of sugar solution. In a 300L jar fermentor the enzymatic hydrolyzates were fermented with Zm. mobilis which was transformed to express BGL, to produce bioethanol with fermentation yield exceeding 90% of theoretical.
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