成果報告書詳細
管理番号20110000000773
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 固体高分子形燃料電池実用化推進技術開発 劣化機構解析とナノテクノロジーを融合した高性能セルのための基礎的材料研究
公開日2011/9/28
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名国立大学法人山梨大学 株式会社カネカ 株式会社東レリサーチセンター 富士電機株式会社(旧:富士電機ホールディングス株式会社) 田中貴金属工業株式会社 株式会社島津製作所 パナソニック株式会社
プロジェクト番号P10001
部署名新エネルギー部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等 (1) 劣化機構解析 1) 電極触媒の負荷変動及び不純物による劣化速度・機構の解析〔山梨大学〕 1-1) 負荷変動による触媒劣化 PEFCのカソード触媒では、負荷変動による電位変化によりPtの電気化学的活性表面積ECAが減少して活性が低下する。本年度は、標準触媒(50wt% Pt/C)およびナノカプセル法で合成したn-Pt3Co/C(50wt%,20wt%)の電位変動によるECAの変化をチャンネルフロー二重電極(CFDE)法によって65℃、N2脱気0.1MHC1O4溶液中で評価した。
英文要約Title: Strategic Development of PEFC Technologies for Practical Application/Research on Nanomaterials for High Performance Fuel Cells (FY2008-FY2012) FY2010 Annual Report
1) Analysis of degradation mechanisms for the PEFC cathode, membrane and MEA. We have found that 20 wt%-Pt3Co/C prepared by the nanocapsule method exhibited higher durability for load-change potential step cycles (0.6 to 1.0 V, 3 s holding) than that on 50 wt%-Pt3Co/C. This is ascribed to a mitigation of the aggregation of nanoparticles due to the optimized interparticle distance. We have succeeded in identifying the degradation products of sulfonated block polyether electrolyte membranes (SPE-bl-1) after an accelerated degradation test in which a mixed gas of H2 and air with a constant composition was supplied to the cell, simulating crossover to the anode or cathode. Similar degradation products were detected in a constant current operation test of a single cell with the SPE-bl-1 membrane. 2) Development of high activity, high durability catalysts. We have developed a new cathode catalyst with stable Pt skin layer formed on PtCo/C to increase the mass activity for the ORR. We have succeeded to quantify the oxygen species on Pt(100), (111) and (110) single crystal electrodes by means of EC-XPS to clarify the ORR mechanism. Using a colloid method, we have succeeded in preparing Pt/SnOy and Pt/TiN catalysts, which exhibited high durability for start-stop potential cycles. We developed a convenient method to remove organic impurities for the scaled-up production of the Pt/GC or Pt-Co/C catalyst by the nanocapsule method. 3) Development of polymer electrolyte membranes suitable for wide temperature range and low humidity. We developed a novel series of sulfonated poly(arylene ether) membranes, in which oxadiazole groups were most effective in improving proton transport properties. We proved that our sulfonated polyimide (SPI-8) membrane was durable for 10000 wet/dry cycles. We developed a novel synthetic method via oligomeric sulfonation for block poly(arylene ether) ionomers containing highly sulfonated hydrophilic blocks. We developed superacid-containing block poly(arylene ether) ionomer membranes. We optimized the production conditions of novel block copolymers and confirmed good reproducibility on a large scale. 4) Research on high performance, high-reliability MEAs for fuel cell vehicles. The effect of a thin catalyst layer (CL) and alloying (Pt-Co) improved the effectiveness EfPt of Pt electrocatalysts by a factor of six. The highest EfPt was obtained by a low Pt loading CL diluted with added carbon black. Sulfonated poly multi-block (SPAE-b) membranes were investigated on life tests of MEAs. SiO2-containing CLs improved the MEA performance under low-humidity conditions. The cold-start behavior of MEAs using GDLs with different porosities or using the SPAE-b membrane were investigated. The durability tests of three types of catalysts were investigated with a standard voltage step protocol. Pt/TiN catalysts were investigated for cell performance.
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