成果報告書詳細
管理番号20110000001205
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 生活支援ロボット実用化プロジェクト 安全技術を導入した搭乗型生活支援ロボットの開発 搭乗型生活支援ロボットにおけるリスクアセスメントと安全機構の開発
公開日2011/10/12
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名トヨタ自動車株式会社 株式会社フォー・リンク・システムズ 独立行政法人国立長寿医療研究センター
プロジェクト番号P09009
部署名機械システム部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等
(1) 研究開発の背景と目的
人間の行動の範囲及び自由度を拡大する移動手段として、現在、自動車から自転車まで各種移動体が存在するが、少子高齢化の進展やCO2 ガス発生削減等の社会的課題を解決していくため、今後、高齢者や環境に配慮した移動体が求められてくる。本研究開発項目では、人や障害物が混在する状況において、人を乗せて移動する機能を備えた搭乗型生活支援ロボットの安全に関する課題を洗い出し、安全を実現するための要求仕様や安全ルールを明確にし、その課題を解決する安全技術を開発することを目的としている。トヨタ自動車では、これまでにいくつかの自社関連施設において、搭乗型生活支援ロボットの安全性についての実証トライ実験を行い、人と密接に動作する搭乗型生活支援ロボットにおける、ハードウエア、ソフトウェアの安全機構についての開発を進めてきた。今回の開発では、すでに基本機能については開発済みの搭乗型生活支援ロボットを使用する。これらのロボットについては、事前に「本質安全」、「衝突安全」、「予防安全」の観点から基本的な安全設計が織り込まれている。今回の研究開発では、医療施設での高齢者使用を想定し、より実践的なリスクアセスメントを国立長寿医療研究センターと共同で行い、その結果をロボット設計にフィードバックする。また安全ソフト開発については、機能安全の側面も考慮し、フォー・リンク・システムズと共同で個別課題の検討を進めた。そして「安全性検証手法研究開発実施者」で設定された機関(日本自動車研究所、産業技術総合研究所、労働安全衛生総合研究所など)と協力し搭乗型生活支援ロボットの認証基準・しくみ造り、および安全試験・評価法の検討を推進してきた。
英文要約Research and Development Details and Results
For this project, Toyota has provided a standing-style as well as a sitting-style passenger robot.
The standing-style robot is a compact, portable, two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle, which utilizes
a sensor that constantly feeds back posture data to maintain stability. The use of a proprietary
parallel link mechanism allows users to move and turn by simply transferring their weight.
This user-friendly operation makes it possible to navigate narrow areas and crowded spaces with
relative ease. The sitting-style passenger robot is also equipped with the aforementioned self-balancing
control technology. However, instead of the parallel link mechanism, the sitting-style robot features
a swing-arm with an adaptive suspension. By independently adjusting axle position, the robot can traverse
uneven terrain and slopes while maintaining stability. Furthermore, the autonomous locomotion technology
is also equipped, enabling the robot to carry out complex path planning and object avoidance in real-time
to a user-defined destination. In order to predict the problems in case of using the standing-style robot
by elderly peoples, we have been working together with the medical staff at the NCGG. In this experiment,
the medical staffs have worn goggles and supporters to simulate elderly peoples, and have ride the
standing-style robot, then we have collected their impressions. For the sitting-style robot,
we have done the experiment to decide the design parameters for autonomous avoidance. Not to give the
fear to peoples surrounding the robot, the distances to start avoiding and braking have been derived.
About this year, Four Link Systems carried out research and development about "a functional safety
platform" and "the functional safety guideline". At first, we performed research and development and
the proof assessment of the functional safety application about the functional safety correspondence
platform which was the theme of this term. The life support robot, which is developing now, has already
carried out risk assessment evaluation in Toyota Motor Corporation, and when people use it in the life
of the usual times, we understand it about getting off if there is not the problem. However, in some
specific states, there is the case that slipping. Therefore we set some use cases and extracted the
case that a slip occurred in a current life support robot. Afterwards, we raced by implementing the
functional safety application that we developed this time and detected it and inspected the effect.
Second, the making of "the functional safety guideline" enforced it as the second theme. About the
result of this guideline, we carry out a seminar through Working Group of group 1 in Tokyo on March 18,
2011 and in Osaka on March 11, 2011.
NCGG, Hospital: In the preliminary experiment, when the elderly simulation set was in place and our
medical staff moved ahead using a standing-style robot, there was no change in the feeling of risk
but the feeling increased when riding or dismounting. Similarly, a green lamp became difficult to
distinguish visually. Moreover, they replied that the indication for using the standing-style robot
for hospital patients would be their having no disability in daily life.NCGG, Depart. of Gerontechnology:
We performed some collision-tipping experiments using dummy puppets in order to estimate injuries to humans,
when they had severe contacts with robots. It is good that they are wearing bicycle helmets when riding some
types of robots. As long as they were wearing helmets, the values of HIC (head injury criterion) showed less
than 1000 even if they fell down and their heads collided with solid ground. The floors were coated with
plastic to weaken head impacts and helped reduce HIC to about 350 when the floor and helmets collided.
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