成果報告書詳細
管理番号20110000001528
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 省エネルギー革新技術開発事業 先導研究 次世代分離プロセス用カーボン膜モジュールの研究開発
公開日2011/10/12
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名NOK 株式会社 独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所
プロジェクト番号P09015
部署名エネルギー対策推進部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等 本研究開発では、化学品製造プロセスにおいて省エネルギー性に優れる膜分離法を次世代分離プロセスの主軸とすることを目指し、優れた分離性能と耐薬品性を有するカーボン膜を用いた新規分離膜モジュールの実用化を目的とする。そのために本研究では、高性能かつ低コストなカーボン膜の開発に加えて、分離膜の使用形態の最小装置単位である膜モジュール製造技術の開発、高効率に膜を利用するための膜分離プロセス設計手法の開発を一貫して実施し、総合的な高効率膜分離システムの構築を目指す。そして、開発したカーボン膜モジュールを、未だに膜分離法が適用されていない酢酸やイソプロパノール(IPA)のような基幹有機物質の分離精製プロセスに世界で初めて導入することにより、現行の蒸留プロセスからの大幅なエネルギー削減を達成する革新的分離プロセスの創出を目指す。
英文要約Title: Development of carbon membrane modules for extended application to membrane separation processes (FY2009-2011) FY2010 Annual Report.
In this project, the following technologies will be developed, 1) development of high-performance and long-lifetime carbon membranes for purification of organic solvents such as acetic acid and isopropanol (IPA), 2) development of fabrication technique of carbon membrane modules, 3) performance evaluation of carbon membrane modules, and 4) process design of membrane separation systems.
1) The preparation conditions of carbon hollow fiber membranes such as spinning conditions and carbonization conditions for IPA dehydration were examined to improve the separation performances. It was revealed that the carbon membrane prepared by the pyrolysis of the precursor membrane at 600 oC for 1 h under vacuum showed the best performance when dehydrating IPA aqueous solution at 75 oC. The H2O permeance of this carbon membrane was larger than 7.5×10-7 (mol/m2 s Pa) and the ideal separation factor was over 100000. The preparation methods of carbon membranes for acetic acid dehydration were optimized by control of pore size and surface property in the carbon membranes. Finally, we have achieved targeted values of both the H2O permeance (P = 3.5×10-7 (mol/m2 s Pa)) and the ideal separation factor (α = 100) for the dehydration of acetic acid by pervaporation at 75 oC.
We also studied the separation conditions such as operating temperature, feed pressure, concentration of feed solution, and so on. The H2O permeance of prepared carbon membrane was found to increase with increased feed pressure and H2O concentration, while the nonpolar gas permeances were independent of these conditions. This can be considered to the increment of the adsorptive property of H2O molecule. It is revealed that the prepared carbon membranes are applicable at up to 140 oC for the dehydration of IPA by vapor permeation.
2) In order to produce carbon hollow fibers for membrane modules with a large membrane area, we have studied to improve our production capacity of hollow fibers by batch method. We have achieved a 60% increase of production capacity compared to last year by improving each production step of hollow fibers. In addition, we designed and installed a large winding instrument for continuous manufacture of hollow fibers.
Furthermore, to obtain chemical-resistant materials, adhesives and O-rings comprising membrane modules, we conducted a durability test under acetic acid or IPA at 80 oC. Finally, some durable materials, adhesives and O-rings were found to be stable in acetic acid or IPA more than 2000 hours.
3) Carbon membrane modules with more than 0.1 m2 of membrane surface area were produced using durable materials mentioned above. As the result of permeation measurement of the membrane modules, the H2O permeances (P) and the ideal separation factors (α) of H2O/IPA were higher than the targeted value.
We customized commercial CFD software to analyze inside of hollow fiber membrane modules (CFD: Computational Fluid Dynamics). We confirmed first that it could simulate dehydration from IPA-water mixture, where 37 membranes were located around the axis of the tubular shell with the shape and dimensions in the experiment. Secondly, the pressure change was found to be negligibly small in the space by the wall. Additionally, we have obtained a prospect to simulate modules with more hollow fiber membranes using several CPUs in parallel.
4) Separation performances and energy consumptions were evaluated for the membrane separation and the conventional distillation to dehydrate acetic acid or IPA solutions using a process simulator. It was proven that the membrane separation was energy saving in comparison with the simple distillation. Optimum designed membrane process achieved 90% energy saving.
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