成果報告書詳細
管理番号20120000000258
タイトル平成23年度中間年報 省水型・環境調和型水循環プロジェクト 水循環要素技術研究開発 革新的膜分離技術の開発(H21-H24)
公開日2012/6/9
報告書年度2011 - 2011
委託先名独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所/熊本県産業技術センター
プロジェクト番号P09011
部署名環境部
和文要約1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等
本事業は、陽電子消滅法によるRO膜及びNF膜の有する細孔を計測する技術を確立し、陽電子消滅法で測定された細孔と分離性能との関係を比較することにより、RO膜及びNF膜の膜評価に関しての標準化に向けた研究開発を行うことを目的とし、陽電子消滅法によるRO膜及びNF膜の有する細孔の計測、RO膜及びNF膜の分離性能の測定を行い、RO膜及びNF膜における細孔と分離性能との相関を求めるとともに、RO膜及びNF膜の細孔測定に関する標準化に向けて研究開発を行う。
英文要約Topic (a) For developing a highly-reliable nanoporosimetry for separation membranes, being established are a protocol for measuring free-volume holes of the active layer in separation membranes as well as a technical documentary standard applicable to the characterization of RO and NF membranes by means of the low-energy positron annihilation lifetime and gamma-ray techniques. In this fiscal year, in order to optimize the condition of positron lifetime measurements for NF membranes having mesoscopic holes larger than 1 nm, a reference material was selected for the correction of the background signals in the obtained lifetime data and the measurement condition such as a positron incident energy and total counts of the data was determined. As a result, polyimide film was found suitable as the background correction, and the time range for the lifetime measurements was specified, at least necessary longer than 200 ns. Furthermore, data statistics, several times larger than for RO membranes, was confirmed to be required for determining the positron lifetimes in the mesoscopic holes of NF membranes. To develop the atmospheric hole measurement technique based on a low-energy positron beam and to optimize its measurement condition for the in-situ characterization of hole structures in separation membranes, a humidity controlling system, applicable to the examination of membranes under a wet condition, was constructed.
Topic (b) In order to elucidate relationship between the nanopore size and performance of RO and NF separation membranes, their separation performance with various conditions of pressure and solute was examined. From the separation performance tests for RO membranes with twenty kinds of solute compounds, as a reference material to evaluate the rejection of RO membranes we selected four kinds of the solutes, that is, urea, ethylene glycol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol, having molecular weights similar to NaCl. The comparison of the rejections of above uncharged solutes with the hole size obtained from the positronium lifetimes revealed that the holes can well explain the hindering effect of the molecular transport. The chlorine resistance of three kinds of commercial RO membranes for desalination was evaluated by immersing the membranes in aqueous solutions of 1000 ppm chlorine. All membranes lost their rejection ability after the immersion over 100 hours.
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