成果報告書詳細
管理番号20120000000394
タイトル*平成23年度中間年報 高効率ノンフロン型空調機器技術の開発/冷媒の性能、安全評価/微燃性冷媒の燃焼・爆発性評価と空調機器使用時のリスクアセスメント 
公開日2012/6/9
報告書年度2011 - 2011
委託先名学校法人東京理科大学
プロジェクト番号P11008
部署名環境部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:
1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等
1.1 研究開発の背景及び目的
地球環境保護の観点から、オゾン層破壊係数(ODP)がゼロでかつ地球温暖化係数(GWP)が小さい冷媒の開発と実用化が切望されている。このような条件を満たす冷媒としてR1234yf やR32, R1234ze(E)などが開発され、有力な代替候補冷媒として期待されている。
英文要約In this project, we investigated the combustion/explosion properties of low flammable refrigerants based on the assumable accident scenarios to evaluate the physical hazards. This project consists of five sub-themes; two of these sub-themes have been focused in FY2011. 1) Physical Risk Assessment of Low Flammable Refrigerant Combustion (AIST) In the processes of installation or operation of air conditioning systems, several accident scenarios due to the mixing of the refrigerant and air are considered. In this subtheme, we examine the physical effects of the refrigerant gas combustions in the room which occur after the refrigerant leakage. In the refrigerant leakage, following different scenarios are considered with the ignition timings. If the ignition occurred early after the refrigerant leakage started and close to the leak outlet, the diffusion flame may be formed. If the ignition occurred long enough after the refrigerant leakage started, premix gas combustion occurs and blast over pressure may be observed. In order to examine the physical hazards due to combustion of premix gas of low flammable refrigerants and air originated by the refrigerant leakage, the time profile of the pressures in the combustion of premix gas was measured using the newly designed large closed reaction vessel. 2) Physical Hazard Evaluation of Air Conditioning Systems using Low Flammable Refrigerants with Heating Systems in the General Life Space (Tokyo University of Science) First, a refrigerant was leaked and stabilized in the 1m cube pool with vertical distribution of concentration. A ceramic heater and a pilot flame were employed as an ignition source. R1234yf, R32, R410A were employed as test refrigerants. Concentrations of refrigerant and hydrogen fluoride (HF) were measured by FT-IR. Following results were confirmed under the present experimental conditions. In the case using a ceramic heater as an ignition source, ignition of R1234yf was confirmed with a certain combination of leak rate and the input voltage, and significant generation of HF was confirmed. Ignition of R32 and R410A were not confirmed, but significant generation of HF was confirmed. In the case using a pilot flame as an ignition source, ignition of R1234yf and R32 and significant generation of HF were confirmed. Second, physical hazard in case that an air conditioning system installed low flammable refrigerants was used with a heating system in the same space was examined. Dimension of the experiment space was 2.8m x 2.8m x 2.8m, that corresponds to the general life space in a Japanese house. R1234yf, R32 and R410A were used as test refrigerants. Amount of leak refrigerant, leak rate and operation of an air conditioner were set as the experimental conditions. Ignition of refrigerant was not confirmed, but significant generation of HF was confirmed in all present experimental conditions. Significant generation of HF was especially confirmed with operating an air conditioning system.
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