成果報告書詳細
管理番号20120000000772
タイトル*平成23年度中間年報 グリーン・サステイナブルケミカルプロセス基盤技術開発/化学品原料の転換・多様化を可能とする革新グリーン技術の開発/非可食性植物由来原料からのグリーンポリマー製造基盤技術に関する研究(微生物機能を用いたポリマー原料製造基盤技術の研究開発)
公開日2012/7/5
報告書年度2011 - 2011
委託先名東レ株式会社 国立大学法人京都大学
プロジェクト番号P09010
部署名電子・材料・ナノテクノロジー部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:
1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等
本研究は、非可食バイオマス由来ポリマーを製造するための基盤技術、すなわち、グリーンポリマー製造基盤技術を開発することで、化石原料由来である既存ポリマーを代替し、GHG 削減に貢献すると同時に原油価格高騰時におけるポリマー製品の安定供給を図ることを目的とする。具体的には、以下の研究開発項目を実施することにより、非可食性植物原料由来ポリマー原料(グリーンモノマー)を製造するための新規微生物技術、分離膜を利用した革新バイオプロセス技術および化学変換技術を開発し、既存ポリマーとコスト、品質、機能が同等なグリーンポリマーを創出する。対象とするグリーンポリマーは、ナイロン樹脂等の機能性汎用樹脂、機能性エンジニアリングプラスチック等である。
英文要約This R&D project is conducted to develop innovative ground technologies for production of nylon-type green polymers from non-edible plant biomass. In this project, following three studies are proceeding.
(1) Development of fermentative production technologies for dicarboxylic acids.
 An oleaginous filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina was chemically mutated into mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acid producers. The contents of these fatty acids reached 35 to 50% in total fatty acids. Furthermore, a mutant strain producing lipids extracellularly was obtained.
 A mono-unsaturated fatty acid modifying enzyme and a di-unsaturated fatty acid modifying enzyme were found in a filamentous fungus and a lactic acid bacterium, respectively. These enzyme genes were expressed in M. alpina and E. coli, respectively.
The E. coli transformant was used for specially modified fatty acid production and the resultant product was send to Toray for further chemical transformation into dicarboxylic acid.
 Microorganisms transforming specially modified fatty acids were screened and some unique microbial reactions generating precursors for dicarboxylic acid synthesis were found.
(2) Development of highly productive bioprocess for lipid fermentation.
 A membrane-integrated fermentation reactor was applied to lipid fermentation of an oleaginous filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina. When glucose and yeast extract were used as the carbon and nitrogen source, respectively, fatty acid content reached 16g/L and the yield was 0.12 g/g glucose. For further study of productivity, adhesion of mycelia to the membrane unit should be resolved.
(3) Development of chemical process to produce dicarboxylic acids from fatty acids.
 A specially modified fatty acid, which was produced by bioprocess at Kyoto Univ., was found to be converted to a dicarboxylic acid precursor in high yield by a novel chemical reaction. In addition, this precursor was transformed efficiently to the targeted dicarboxylic acid. By these studies, a basic methodology to produce the dicarboxylic acid by a two-step chemical process was identified.
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