成果報告書詳細
管理番号20120000000597
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 最先端PG(Mega-ton Water System) 浸透圧発電 「膜汚染機構の解明」(H22~H23)
公開日2012/9/22
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名国立大学法人東京工業大学
プロジェクト番号P09025
部署名環境部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:
1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等
(1)事業目的
環境に優しい再生可能エネルギーのひとつに浸透圧発電がある。このシステムは風力や太陽光などの自然エネルギーに特有な時間変動が殆どなく、また設備面積を抑えることが可能なため発電施設を都市部近郊にコンパクトな形で立地させることができ、電力損失の少ない安定した電力供給が可能である。本委託事業の目的は正味電力を安定に取り出せる浸透圧発電システムの構築である。
(2)事業概要
浸透圧発電システムにおいて発生する電力はタービンを回す水量と水圧の積に比例する。そのため高い発電量を得るために、浸透圧発電用の正浸透膜には(1)高い水透過性、(2)膜表面近傍での濃度分極によって引き起こされる浸透圧差の低下を抑えるための高い塩バリヤー性、(3)膜性能を長期間保持するために高い耐膜汚染性が必要となる。本研究では、膜表面構造とファウラント(汚染物質)の相互作用の検討により膜汚染(ファウリング)発生機構の解析を行い、膜汚染の測定システムおよび分析システムを構築することで膜汚染を定量化し耐膜汚染性に優れた膜素材や膜モジュール構造を検討する。尚、研究場所は東京工業大学大学院理工学研究科(東京都目黒区)である。
英文要約Utilization of renewable energy has expanded worldwide, because the increase of CO2 and NOX by the consumption of fossil fuel has caused air pollution and global warming.Salinity power, which would appear when saline and pure water touches each other across semi-permeable membrane, has not been used before despite that is clean enough and available abundantly.Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) is the promising processes to pick up that energy effectively.Some of many benefits from using PRO system are following.Effectiveness of power generation does not vary along time course although solar or wind energy does.Power plant of that system can be located near residential or urban area because it doesn’t need large area when constructed.Although PRO power generation has many benefits and advantages, we have to overcome some challenges to implement that system effectively.One of them is problem which occurs at semi permeable membranes.We need membranes with high water flux and low frequency of maintenance.Obstacles against that nature of membrane come from mainly two phenomena as follows.Concentration Polarization (CP) is the phenomena that salt concentration near membranes becomes different from that in the bulk phase of aqueous solution, which is caused by the fact that membrane is lack of effective barrier against salt permeation.It would actually lower osmotic pressure difference across membranes and, as a result, reduce water flux through membrane.Membrane Fouling, which is caused by organic compound or micro organism existing in the aqueous phase touching membranes, would plug pores of membranes and also causes reduction of water flux through membranes.Our research unit located at Tokyo Institute of Technology, led by Professor Akihiko TANIOKA, focuses on Membrane Fouling.According to our preliminary surveys, membrane fouling is found to be affected by salt ions which co-exist near membrane’s interface against aqueous phase.So fouling and CP problem should not be separated from each other when seeking the total solution against these problems.Our unit decided that we would investigate the state of salt ions or the activity of organic compounds near membrane phase from the electrochemical point of view. A equipment for the electrochemical analysis 1255WC, a product of “Solartron Co.Ltd.”(Britain) and HPC system GL-7400, a product of GL Science Co.Ltd.(Japan) were purchased and put into operation. Data coming from those system are carefully analyzed and provided or fed back to other research unit of this project such as “membrane preparation” team in order to accelerate improving membrane properties effectively.
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