成果報告書詳細
管理番号20120000000601
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 最先端PG(Mega-ton Water System) 100万m3/日規模大型プラント構成最適化 「センシング技術(遺伝子計測技術を用いた原水水質管理)」(H22~H23)
公開日2012/9/22
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名横河電機株式会社
プロジェクト番号P09025
部署名環境部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:
1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等
RO 膜(逆浸透膜)処理における大きな課題として、原水に含まれる難溶性成分や高分子の溶質やコロイド、微小固形物等からなるスライムが膜等に沈着し、透過能を低下させるバイオファウリングという現象がある。
この現象についての対策は簡単でない。なぜなら、それが微生物に起因する複雑な現象だからである。また、バイオファウリングが前処理および薬品注入により大きな影響を受けることも、対策の困難さの原因である。そのため、この現象の管理に適用できる技術の開発が必要である。
今回我々は、このバイオファウリングを誘引する原因となる菌を同定可能とするシステムを作成するための、(1)RO 膜へのバイオファウリングに関する調査、および(2)海洋細菌の検出法について検討を行ったので報告する。
英文要約Biofouling is a troublesome problem in RO process. Because it is a complex phenomenon that microorganism causes. Moreover, the matter that biofouling gets a big influence from the preprocessing and the chemical feeding makes counter measures difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the technology that can apply to the management of this phenomenon. To advance the investigation of this matter, we conducted the document reaearch and the examination of bacteria detection technique. Recently, the gene analysis technology has spread. As a result, an immediate, precise analysis of the biofilm that is the main factor of biofouling has become possible. Development of computer and measurement technique makes it possible to discuss the mechanism of formation of biofouling as a physical phenomenon precisely. Researches by these approaches are in progress at present, and have not arrived at the detailed mechanism of the biofilm formation and the fixation of the generation condition. It is supposed that the biofouling is caused by interaction of a lot of bacteria. About many bacteria, because gene sequences necessary to identify the species of microbe have been registered in the public data base, the species of microbe can be identified from the gene. In addition, the method of obtaining genetic information has been established from unknown microbe. Therefore, we thought that the method of detecting genes as target were suitable to identify the bacterium. Considering these conditions, we decided to identify the gene by using DNA microarray that was able to detect many kinds of genes at the same time. Gene detection by DNA microarray consists of the following six steps. These are cell lysis, DNA purification, DNA amplification, DNA labeling, hybridization and fluorescent scanning to each spot hybridized on a DNA microarray. Here, the supersensitive fluorescent scanner which is developing by Yokogawa will be used for the microarray scanning. Most of marine bacteria have the character as anaerobic and heterotrophic nutrition, and gram-negative bacteria command a majority. On the other hand, gram-positive bacteria are detected in the sea area where living drainage is discharged. Moreover, the number of bacteria changes greatly depending on the environment or the method of preprocessing seawater. Anyway, the bacteria that cause biofouling exist in seawater. At current year, we made two or more gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria the candidate of the model microbe to detect marine bacteria. Next, we'll construct protocols for gene detection for identifying these bacteria. By this study and clarifying the generation principle of biofouling, we expect an efficient management method of the RO membrane in the seawater desalination plant will be established.
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