成果報告書詳細
管理番号20120000001004
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 最先端PG(Mega-ton Water System) 高効率・大型分離膜エレメント・モジュール 高効率・大型RO膜スパイラルエレメント 
公開日2012/9/22
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名東レ株式会社 株式会社東レリサーチセンター 国立大学法人神戸大学
プロジェクト番号P09025
部署名環境部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等
(1) RO膜合成研究開発(東レ株式会社)
(1)1 ラボスケール(15cm×20cm)での製膜によりスクリーニング探索を推進した。スパイラルエレメントに適したRO 膜は、分離機能層、多孔質支持膜、布帛基材の3層構造を有する複合分離膜である。RO 膜の構造と界面重合反応の模式図を図1に示す。架橋ポリアミドからなるひだ構造は3次元架橋により分子間隙(空孔)を形成する。
英文要約Title: Project on First Program” Mega-Ton Water System”: Development of High Efficient Large Size Element and Module: Research and Development of High Efficient Large Size Spiral Wounded RO Element. (FY2010 - FY2011) FY2010 Annual Report: 1) Polyamide membranes: RO membrane technologies have made great progress and in seawater and brackish water desalination field, both energy saving and water quality improvement have been two major subjects. Today, the energy consumption in RO membrane seawater desalination process becomes less than one tenth, compared to those of 1970’s. However, advanced membranes are still demanded to achieve lower cost, lower energy consumption and higher water quality. In order to obtain further excellent performance, we has been executing fundamental research for RO membranes on investigating physical and chemical properties which has resulted in the advanced RO membranes with high flux, high rejection. :2) Fine Structure of RO membrane: To prepare the installation of Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS), which can be used for the determination of the pore size distributions in reverse osmosis membranes, a design of the equipment and a deliberation of a radiation controlled area were carried out. An auto-measurement system for Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), which can be used for the determination of the pore size distributions in reverse osmosis membranes, was installed for efficient operations. A special sample preparation technique, an optimum observational condition and quantitative analysis method from 3-dimensinal data were checked up and developed for the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation, which can be used for the micro-structure-morphology analysis of reverse osmosis membranes. :3) We carried out trend survey of membrane element upsizing. And it became evident that water cost and plant construction cost are advantageous so that element diameter became big. On the other hand, it also became clear that there was a problem to a design and the production cost of large-sized vessels more than 20 inches. : 4) To design an RO membrane element optimally, it is important to suppress the permeability decrease due to the concentration polarization and to reduce the pressure drop in the channel. In this study, the flow field in the channel of the raw water was investigated using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). Then, a numerical analysis method of flow and mass transfer in the channel with membrane permeation was developed. (a)Numerical simulation in the channel of raw water: The flow field in spacer-filled channel of raw water was numerically calculated. From the result, high velocity regions were observed near the spacers and the flows separated at upstream and downstream of spacers. In addition, the higher pressure drops generated in these high velocity regions because of the friction between the fluid and the channel wall and the spacers. (b)Development of a numerical analysis method of flow and mass transfer with membrane permeation: To investigate the concentration polarization and the permeability decrease quantitatively, a numerical analysis method of flow and mass transfer with membrane permeation was developed. In the present method, the local water permeation flux and the local solution permeation flux specified by a theoretical analysis using the calculated local pressure and the local concentration were set as the boundary condition of the membrane surface in the computational domain. As the result of this computation, the concentration polarization was suppressed at the high velocity region mentioned above. This is because of bulk fluid with low concentration transported to the membrane surface.
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