成果報告書詳細
管理番号20120000000301
タイトル*平成23年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術研究開発 バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発) エネルギー植物の品種改良に係わる代謝情報と遺伝子発現情報に関する研究開発
公開日2012/12/14
報告書年度2011-2011
委託先名財団法人かずさディー・エヌ・エー研究所 独立行政法人理化学研究所 国立大学法人京都大学
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー部
和文要約
英文要約New Energy Technology Development Project / High Efficiency Bioenergy Conversion Project, Development of Preparatory Basic Bioenergy Technologies
Research and Development of Genetic and Metabolic Information on Energy Producing Plants for Breeding Programs

Project Summary of FY 2011
 Many plant species have attracted attention as potential feedstocks for biofuel. However, the available genetic and metabolic information on most of these plants is, in general, limited. Few databases have been developed that provide both genetic and metabolic data on energy producing plants in an integrated manner. We analyze genes and metabolites of energy producing plants such as Erianthus, switchgrass, poplar and jatropha in a comprehensive manner and then develop databases of the information obtained.
 
 Analysis of Gene Expressions and Low-solubility substances of Energy Producing Plants
 To understand gene expression of energy producing plants, Erianthus, switchgrass and Eucalyptus, RNAseq analysis was carried out using a giga-sequencer Genomu Analyzer IIx (Illumina).
 Lignocellulose is low-solubility baiomacromoleucles, therefore it has been generally analyzed using decomposed monomer states. However, NMR approach can be applied to elucidate lignin substructures and hemicellulose structure and compositions to the ball-milled lignocellulose solubilized with DMSO solvent system. During this year, we have developed new web site Bm-Char (https://database.riken.jp/ecomics/biomass), it contains database of NMR signals and query of chemical group of lignocellulose components. Furthermore, we have performed tissue-specific biomass profiling using solution-NMR technique for Erianthus ravennae and Jatropha cucus L. In addition to this, a new data minning method specialized for solid-state MAS spectra of cellulosic materials was also developed as an alternative platform technology for solid-biomass analysis, and it has been submitted to the international journals.
 
 Analysis of Lignin of Energy Producing Plants
 Lignin is a major component of the secondary cell wall of vascular plants, and is an obstacle in the conversion of plant cell wall polysaccharides into biofuels. However, little is known about lignins of energy-producing plants. In this fiscal year, we have successfully analyzed lignin, p-hydroxycinnamic acids, minerals, and enzymatic saccharification efficiency in the stem (inner and outer parts of each internode), leaf blade, and leaf sheath of Erianthus ravennae. These analyses showed that the outer part of the stem showed negative correlation between enzymatic saccharification efficiency and lignin content. Surprisingly, however, the enzymatic saccharification efficiency of the inner part did not show the correlation to lignin content, while it was found to be positively correlated to the ratio of syringyl / guaiacyl unit in lignin. The result is new and will be of great help to understand suprastructure of lignocellulosic materials. In addition, we also characterized lignins in some organs of Jatropha curcas.

 Construction of Database on Energy Producing Plant Metabolites
 To understand metabolisms of the energy producing plants in this project, we processed the chromatographic data of Erianthus, switchgrass and Jatropha curca to deposit into the metabolome database MassBase.
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