成果報告書詳細
管理番号20120000000615
タイトル*平成23年度中間年報 セルロース系エタノール革新的生産システム開発事業 バイオエタノール一貫生産システムに関する研究開発 セルロース系目的生産バイオマスの栽培から低環境負荷前処理技術に基づくエタノール製造プロセスまでの低コスト一貫生産システムの開発
公開日2012/12/26
報告書年度2011-2011
委託先名バイオエタノール革新技術研究組合 国立大学法人東京大学
プロジェクト番号P09014
部署名新エネルギー部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:
1.研究開発の内容及び成果等
気候帯毎に立案した周年供給モデル案に基づき、選択した作物のバイオマス収量とコストを評価した。その結果、熱帯のインドネシアにおいて、ネピアグラスの単作により目標コスト3円/kgを達成可能であることが分かった。ネピアグラスは乾季においても生産性が低下せず、安定的な供給が可能であった。また、ネピアグラス栽培により、土壌中の炭素量が増加したことから、持続的なバイオマス生産が示唆された。
英文要約Title : Development of an integrated system for the low-cost cellulosic bio-ethanol production from energy crops cultivation to conversion process based on environmentally-friendly pre-treatment technology (FY2009-FY2013) FY2011 Annual Report
Biomass yield and cost of selected crops based on a year-round raw material supply model in each climatic zone were evaluated. As a result, it was possible to achieve the target cost (3.0 yen/kg) through Napier grass cultivation in tropical area, such as Indonesia.
We found the efficiency of the developed harvester is better than that of the existing machine. We also presented the stable supply model in the tropical zone including sun drying, optimization of harvesting plan and transfer station location.
We developed the original pre-treatment process and established a quasi-continuous process which reduces 73% of energy consumption ,80% of ammonia usage, and 40% of nitrogen usage.
Enzymatic saccharification process was investigated though optimization of conditions, concentration and preparation of saccharified solution, and enzyme production. We conducted experiments toward reduction of enzyme cost from the three viewpoints as reduction of production cost, development of highly-efficient preparation, and recovery and reuse of components. We acquired the guidelines to achieve the level of typical enzyme cost as low as 10 yen / L-EtOH. To reduce the cost of enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei, we obtained some mutants having superior productivities, and established a low-cost cultivating conditions.
In order to realize preparation of high-performance enzymes, we constructed the library of various kind of related saccharification enzymes derived from white-rot fungus. We identified the enzymes by using the technique of two-dimensional electrophoresis. found the shortage components through saccharification experiments by adding apropriate enzymes.
To recycle enzymes, the condition of cellulose release adsorbed on residues of hydrolysate was determined, and its bench-facility enabling enzyme recycling was established.
Fermentation process was investigated from the main viewpoints of obtaining thermoduric strain, fermentation inhibitor-resistant strain, ethanol-resistant strain and techniques of concentration, distillation and dehydration process. Obtained thermoduric yeast for C6 fermentation could ferment alcohol under 44 degree of Celsius. Also obtained ethanol-resistant yeast for C5 fermentation could ferment alcohol in existence of 4 % alcohol.
We activated the endogenous genes for xylose assimilation with various Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and evaluated their ability to produce ethanol from xylose. Extensive screening successfully resulted in obtaining 5 strains which produced ethanol from xylose with more than 10% higher yield compared to the present strain.
Entire system assessment to accomplish the project target of GHG balance and energy requirement based on LCA was conducted reflecting the status quo individual process data consisting entire system. Cost of the entire plant was also estimated and encouraging prospect was obtained clearing the interim target cost.
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