成果報告書詳細
管理番号20120000001034
タイトル*平成23年度中間年報 生活支援ロボット実用化プロジェクト 安全技術を導入した搭乗型生活支援ロボットの開発 搭乗型生活支援ロボットにおけるリスクアセスメントと安全機構の開発
公開日2013/4/10
報告書年度2009 - 2013
委託先名トヨタ自動車株式会社 国立長寿医療研究センター
プロジェクト番号P09009
部署名技術開発推進部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:
1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等
(1) 研究開発の背景と目的
人間の行動の範囲及び自由度を拡大する移動手段として、現在、自動車から自転車まで各種移動体が存在するが、少子高齢化の進展やCO2 ガス発生削減等の社会的課題を解決していくため、今後、高齢者や環境に配慮した移動体が求められてくる。本研究開発項目では、人や障害物が混在する状況において、人を乗せて移動する機能を備えた搭乗型生活支援ロボットの安全に関する課題を洗い出し、安全を実現するための要求仕様や安全ルールを明確にし、その課題を解決する安全技術を開発することを目的としている。トヨタ自動車では、これまでにいくつかの自社関連施
設において、搭乗型生活支援ロボットの安全性についての実証トライ実験を行い、人と密接に動作する搭乗型生活支援ロボットにおける、ハードウエア、ソフトウェアの安全機構についての開発を進めてきた。今回の開発では、すでに基本機能については開発済みの搭乗型生活支援ロボットを使用する。これらのロボットについては、事前に「本質安全」、「衝突安全」、「予防安全」の観点から基本的な安全設計が織り込まれている。今回の研究開発では、医療施設での高齢者使用を想定し、より実践的なリスクアセスメントを国立長寿医療研究センターと共同で行い、その結果をロボット設計にフィードバックする。また安全ソフト開発については、機能安全の側面も考慮し、フォー・リンク・システムズと共同で検討を進めた。そして「安全性検証手法研究開発実施者」で設定された機関(日本自動車研究所、産業技術総合研究所、労働安全衛生総合研究所など)と協力し搭乗型生活支援ロボットの基準造り、安全試験・評価法の検討を推進してきた。
英文要約Development Items Project for practical applications of service robots
Developmental item [5] Development of passenger robots based on safety technology  Development of risk assessment and safety mechanism for passenger robots 2011 Interim Report for the 2009-2013 Project Span Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) and National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology (NCGG)
Research and Development Details and Results
TMC has developed two new standing-scooter-type livelihood-support-robots that have been provided to Robot Safety Center for safety evaluation. The new robots have improved maneuverability while driving on uneven terrains, and improved environmental resistance such as water-proof, dust-proof and electromagnetic compatibility. TMC has also provided two conventional standing-scooter-type livelihood-support-robots to NCGG to conduct real-life-tests by its medical staffs (physicians and nurses). In the tests, TMC, with the help of the medical staffs, assumed a set of realistic care-taking tasks wherein the robots may be advantageously employed. After conducting the tests, the medical staffs evaluated the robot in terms of benefits such as reduction of fatigue, and risks during operation by answering the questionnaires prepared by TMC. Similar evaluation of the robot has, also, been conducted with the help of patients chosen by NCGG. Additionally, TMC has been developing two different types of robots: (1) a wheel-chair-type livelihood-support-robot, and (2) a self-transfer robot. The former has been developed to provide a transportation-means with easy embarkation and disembarkation for elderly persons and patients. The later aims at providing the caretakers a means to transfer the patients with minimum effort between a bed and a wheelchair, and between a wheelchair and a bathroom. The self-transfer robot is equipped with an arm mechanism that lifts the patient, and a power-assisted cart that moves the robot on the floor. With the self-transfer robot, a patient seating on a bed can be lifted using the arm mechanism, transferred to a bathroom using the power-assisted cart, then seated on a toilet seat using the arm mechanism. Thus, the self-transfer robot allows one caretaker to transfer a patient with minimum effort. TMC has been conducting risk assessments on the two robots. Lastly, TMC has been involved in the research and development of safety evaluation methods with Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI), Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Through the research and development, TMC has advised test jig design and has provided an inspection software for electromagnetic compatibility test. On providing the standing-scooter-type robots, TMC provided a training program on operation, battery-charging, and proof-testing. For the evaluation of safety certification procedure, TMC has been conducting an investigation of safety standards and safety software tools as well as benchmarking of safety products. For the evaluation of severity of harm in using standing-scooter-type robots, simulations and experiments using a crash test dummy have been conducted partly with the help of NCGG and JARI, and the obtained knowledge will be utilized to refine the risk assessment of the standing-scooter-type robots. NCGG, Depart. of Gerontechnology: We performed collision tests using dummies and a simulated robot to estimate the damage to the human body, especially the head, in falls from the robot or collisions. Bicycle helmets reduced the head injury criterion (HIC) and offered good protection in falls. With a helmet on the dummy, HIC was less than 1000 even in falls in which the head hit the hard floor. In an analysis using motion capture, we traced the trajectories of markers attached to various body parts on the dummy and found that the trajectories approximated an elliptic function.
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