成果報告書詳細
管理番号20130000000374
タイトル*平成24年度中間年報 高効率ノンフロン型空調機器技術の開発 冷媒の性能、安全性評価 エアコン用低GWP冷媒の性能および安全性評価
公開日2013/7/27
報告書年度2012 - 2012
委託先名国立大学法人東京大学
プロジェクト番号P11008
部署名環境部
和文要約ノンフロン型空調機器用冷媒の性能評価と安全性評価をするために、下記研究項目を実施した。
(1)エアコンの性能評価法の確立
・エアコン、ビル用マルチエアコンの部分負荷特性と快適性評価の検討
・低GWP冷媒の熱交換器性能,サイクル性能の評価
(2)室内への冷媒リーク時の安全性評価
・微燃性冷媒が室内へ漏洩したときの濃度分布の解析
・熱分解、燃焼後のHF濃度解析
・リスク評価
(3)ノンフロン型冷媒の実用条件の燃焼性評価
・冷媒の実用上の燃焼限界評価方法の開発と評価
(4)ノンフロン型冷媒の着火エネルギー評価法の開発
・2L冷媒の最小火花着火エネルギー(MIE)の評価法の開発
・2L冷媒の実用条件の最小火花着火エネルギー(MIE)の評価
・2L冷媒の最小着火エネルギー及び消炎距離評価方法の開発
英文要約(1) Performance evaluation method of air-conditioners (University of Tokyo)
 Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R1234yf were experimentally studied, and the results were compared to those of R134a and R32. The condensation heat transfer characteristics of nonazeotropic mixtures of R1234yf and R32 inside horizontal smooth tubes (inner diameter 2mm and 4 mm) were experimentally studied. The measured local heat transfer coefficients were compared with that of pure refrigerant and evaluated by a prediction model for the nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures.
(2) Safety assessment of refrigerants leaking into a room (University of Tokyo)
 If a flammable refrigerant leaks into a residential space from an air conditioner with an ignition source, there is a risk of burning. The diffusion of refrigerant was calculated numerically. When the refrigerant leaks from a wall-mounted indoor unit, the combustible gas region is just below the indoor unit. When the refrigerant leaks from a floor-mounted indoor unit or an outdoor unit, the combustible gas region spreads over the floor and exists for a long time.
  It is necessary to clarify the decomposability and products of refrigerants, when the refrigerants leaks to the hot surface. Experiments was carried out to quantify HF, and to analyze other products in thermal decomposition of refrigerants.
(3) Flammability of 2L class refrigerants (AIST)
 As for evaluation of flammability limits, it has been found that the temperature dependences of flammability limits of ammonia, R-32, and R-143a agree well with the prediction by White's rule, while those of R-1234yf and R-1234ze(E) are considerably larger than the prediction by this rule. As to the humidity effect, the flammability limits of ammonia, R-32, and R-143a have been found not much affected by the humidity, but those of R-1234yf and R-1234ze(E) are markedly dependent on the humidity. Under extremely high humidity condition, R-410A, R-410B, and R-134a became flammable, while R-125 did not. On the other hand, the flammability limits of ammonia and R-1234yf mixtures were found extremely different from the prediction by Le Chatelier's equation. Modification of Le Chatelier's equation was made to explain the flammability limits of these mixtures.
(4) Ignition energy of 2L class refrigerants (AIST)
 We estimated the minimum ignition energy (MIE) by obtaining quenching distances (QD) and applying them to the theoretical relationship between MIE, QD and burning velocity (Su). We measured QD for all the types of existing flammable refrigerants. For R-1234yf, we measured QD in microgravity to obtain the ideal (buoyancy free) QD. We obtained a good correlation between QD and Su. All the estimated values were agreed with the lowest values of the reported experimental MIE values. Considering practical use of fundamental properties on quenching, we introduced the concept of extinction diameter and measured it for flammable refrigerants.
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