成果報告書詳細
管理番号20140000000188
タイトル*平成25年度中間年報 固体高分子形燃料電池実用化推進技術開発 次世代技術開発 高効率・低貴金属固体高分子燃料電池型水素製造セルの研究開発
公開日2015/12/19
報告書年度2013 - 2013
委託先名国立大学法人山梨大学 株式会社神鋼環境ソリューション
プロジェクト番号P10001
部署名新エネルギー部
和文要約
英文要約Title: Study and Development of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Type Hydrogen Production Cell with High Efficiency and Low Noble Metal Loading (FY2013-FY2014) FY2013 Annual Report

1. In order to reduce noble metal usage in electrodes for solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis (SPWE), we have newly synthesized and characterized Pt-Ir based catalysts supported on high durability Nb-SnO2 nanosized particles that we have recently developed. The Nb-SnO2 supports were prepared by means of the flame combustion method. Pt, Pt-Ir, and Ir nanoparticle catalysts supported on Nb-SnO2 particles were prepared by the nanocapsule method developed by our group. Microstructural and compositional analyses by XRD, TEM, EDX, ICP-MS were carried out for the resulting catalysts. As a result, it was found that Pt-Ir based nanoparticles with a well-controlled size were dispersed on Nb-SnO2 supports for all synthesized catalysts with different Ir contents. With increasing x value from 0 to 100 in Pt100-xIrx/Nb-SnO2, the average particle size of the noble metal catalysts decreased from 4.3 to 2.1 nm.
2. The activities of the catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) in 0.1 M HClO4 aqueous solution at 80 oC using a channel flow electrode cell. It was clarified that the onset potential for the OER became less positive and the mass activity for the OER at 1.5 V vs. RHE was remarkably increased with increasing Ir content in the Pt100-xIrx catalysts (x value). The OER activities of the Pt65Ir35/Nb-SnO2 and Ir/Nb-SnO2 catalysts were 10 and 60 times higher, respectively, than that of a mixture of commercial Pt black and IrO2 powders (50:50 in weight ratio) used in a conventional SPWE. We have shown the possibility of SPWE operation at 1 A cm-2 with a noble metal catalyst of 0.1 mgmetal cm-2. In addition, it was demonstrated from LSV that a commercial Pt/graphitized carbon black (GCB) catalyst showed a 7-fold higher activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) than the commercial Pt black conventionally used. These increases in OER and HER activities are ascribed to a decrease in the particle size and high dispersion of the noble metal catalysts. It is strongly indicated that the utilization of nanoparticle catalysts with high activity would lead to a reduction in noble metal usage in SPWE cells.
3. We have prepared an electrolysis test apparatus for the durability assessment of a small scale membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in water electrolysis at 80 oC. The specifications of the apparatus allow operation at 0.9 MPa (gauge pressure) as a practical condition. The electrolysis cell with 25 cm2 area was prepared by modifying a standard JARI fuel cell. The carbon anode separator was replaced with a titanium separator to avoid oxidative degradation. To obtain the reference data, current-voltage characteristics of the conventional model of MEA were tested by using this apparatus with the modified small cell. The performance has nearly achieved 90 % and 85 % electrolysis efficiency at 1.0 A cm-2 and 3.0 A cm-2, respectively, which are the targets in this project.
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