成果報告書詳細
管理番号20150000000746
タイトル*平成23年度中間年報 バイオマスエネルギー技術研究開発 戦略的次世代バイオマスエネルギー利用技術開発事業 (次世代技術開発) 急速接触熱分解による新たなバイオ燃料製造技術の研究開発  
公開日2015/12/25
報告書年度2011 - 2011
委託先名国立大学法人東京大学 大学院 工学系研究科 明和工業株式会社
プロジェクト番号P10010
部署名新エネルギー部
和文要約
英文要約1) R&D on a catalyst for upgrading of pyrolysis oil
Work on catalyst development is based on studies of HDO of cellulose and lignin model compounds on transition metal phosphides, which have been reported to have very high activity in hydrogen transfer reactions. Initial work on catalyst development has focused on catalysts supported on ultra-stable Y (USY) zeolites, which are the most important components of FCC catalysts. The FCC catalysts were chosen because they are employed commercially in fluidized bed reactors and have high acidity. Thus, they are compatible with pyrolysis technology, which also uses fluidized beds, and in addition, the acidity is useful for cracking large molecules present in biooil. The FCC catalysts are steamed at high temperature so as to partly decompose the USY zeolites and form mesoporous channels for higher accessibility. In our studies the USY zeolites are exchanged with potassium to control their acidity. In addition, use is made of Fe and Ni combinations, as these are plentiful and inexpensive elements. As a model compound for cellulose use is made of the compound 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) which is a five-membered oxygenated ring compound.
Various Ni2P/KUSY, Fe2P/KUSY, and NiFeP/KUSY catalysts with different Ni/Fe molar ratios were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of aqueous precursor solutions, followed by temperature-programmed reduction. X-ray diffraction patterns of these catalysts indicate that the well-crystalized KUSY support has maintained the structure even after impregnation, calcination and reduction. Catalytic activity in the HDO of 2-MTHF was measured in a plug flow reactor at 0.5 MPa. Although there is not much difference between the samples, the NiFe alloys all have slightly higher TOF than the pure Ni2P sample, indicating that alloying is beneficial for activity. The main products are butane, n-pentane, 2-pentanone, and 1-pentanol. It can be seen that Ni2P is the best at producing the desired hydrocarbons, butane and n-pentane.

2) R&D of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor for catalytic fast pyrolysis
A laboratory scale fluidized bed type fast pyrolyzer having a capacity of 10-20 kilograms of biomass per hour was designed. The pyrolysis reactor is heated with an electric furnace, which will have a 250 mm inside diameter and a 500mm bed height, and will form gas, bio-oil and char. The setup also has a riser tube (:65A) and a cyclone for dust collecting, a condenser for separating the biooil, and an exhaust treatment device. Fresh sand is fed and discharged continuously to simulate the removal of unreacted char by combustion in a char combustor; 500 mm inside diameter and 500 mm bed height.
In the following fiscal year the above-mentioned apparatus will be assembled checked, and utilized for production of bio-oil. Studies will be conducted on the effect of various parameters on the formation of biooil. Moreover, study will be made of the design and manufacture, of the catalyst associated equipment for the catalyst property modification currently carried out in the U-Tokyo and AIST. In addition, a laboratory scale two stage fluidized bed type fast pyrolysis unit and an in situ catalytic processing unit having a capacity of 10-30 grams of biomass per hour will be designed and constructed. As a first trial, only fresh catalyst will be fed continuously to simulate a perfect regeneration of catalyst. A catalyst regenerator will be added to carry out a recycling of catalyst between reformer and regenerator.
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