成果報告書詳細
管理番号20160000000568
タイトル*平成27年度中間年報 次世代ロボット中核技術開発 革新的ロボット要素技術分野 慣性質量を含むインピーダンス可変機構を有するスマートアクチュエータ
公開日2016/7/22
報告書年度2015 - 2015
委託先名学校法人早稲田大学
プロジェクト番号P15009
部署名ロボット・AI部
和文要約
英文要約1.The purpose of this project is to develop smart actuators that can adjust mechanical impedance including elasticity, viscosity, and inertia. Robots that share living and work spaces with human require not only the dexterity for work but also safeness. In development of actuators for such robots, flexibility that can enhance workability and safeness is represented as one of the most important topics. Mechanical impedance that defines flexibility/stiffness of robot arms includes inertia mass, elastic coefficient, and viscosity coefficient. However, conventional impedance control methods for robot arms adjust just compliance (elasticity) and damping factor (viscosity). In this study, we develop new smart actuators that can adjust all three factors such as inertia, elastic coefficient, and viscosity coefficient, which are the complete mechanical impedance, by introducing functional fluids such as magnetorheological fluids (MRFs). This smart actuator can drastically improve the abilities in both human adaptation and work execution. Moreover, after applying fundamental controllers to actuators, we introduce an intelligent controller to dynamically adjust multiple parameters of actuators depending on situations, which are estimated by using instrumented sensors. Situations include not only simple physical quantity such as contacting force and velocity but also the context of situation. Therefore, on the basis of a basic control model, we will introduce machine learning methods to adapt such dynamic situations. Furthermore, dealing with various usage purposes such as reducing the size and weight and specializing one factor, is quite important for commercialization. Therefore, on the basis of selecting minimal functions, we discuss about optimized design for realizing target specifications. From the above analysis, the purpose of this project is to develop innovative smart actuators with variable impedance mechanism for elasticity, viscosity, and inertia for realizing human-robot cooperation/collaboration in living space or factory space. Therefore, we develop 1. Development of variable mechanical impedance mechanisms 2. Development of intelligent actuator controllers 3. Development of a design optimization method for functional customization 4. Experiments using robots 2. In this year, we analyzed required specifications for three characteristics variable mechanism including elasticity coefficient, viscosity coefficient, and inertia. In particular, we developed a linear actuator with variable viscosity coefficient using magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) and conducted some experiments. Moreover, we discussed about required specifications of control methodologies for each characteristics variable mechanisms. (A) Development of linear actuator with variable viscosity coefficient To realize smooth force and compliance control, we developed a linear MR piston including MR valves with toroidal shape coil, as shown in Fig. 1. The MR actuator can move on the basis of the difference pressure between both champers, like normal hydraulic pistons, as shown in Fig. 2. For MR pistons, MR fluid can pass through the MR valve, and the MR valve can control the flow rate by changing the magnitude of the magnetic field. The force applied to the piston head can be controlled by the magnetic field in MR valves. (B) Analysis of required specification for inertia and elasticity variable mechanism Considering the usage of magnetorheological fluids, we analyzed required specification for inertia and elasticity variable mechanisms. On the basis of the variable impedance adjustment systems we have previously developed, we focus on smaller and lighter actuators with wider variable range and bandwidth. In particular, we discussed about a mechanism to make an actuator be drastic two states, i.e., either flexible state or stiff state.
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