成果報告書詳細
管理番号20090000000284
タイトル*平成20年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術研究開発 バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発) 廃棄物系バイオマスを原料とする微生物燃料電池の研究開発
公開日2009/8/26
報告書年度2008 - 2008
委託先名鹿島建設株式会社
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー技術開発部 バイオマスグループ
和文要約以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び結果等 微生物燃料電池(以下MFC)は、燃料電池の触媒として微生物を用いることにより、それら微生物が資化できる多様な有機物から直接電力を取り出す技術である。我々は,将来のバイオマスエネルギー転換におけるキーテクノロジーとなると考え、自然の微生物系(ミクロフローラ)を用いた研究開発を本事業として実施するものである。 本事業では、研究や調査で得られた知見を基に独自のMFCリアクターを構築し、廃棄物系バイオマスのモデルとなる複合高分子有機物(人工廃水)を基質として現在報告されている世界最高レベルの出力(リアクター単位体積あたりの電力で50 W m-3、バイオマス分解速度で2 kg-COD m-3 d-1程度)で安定して運転することを目標に、リアクターの改良検討を行い、H19年度末に数値目標を超過する性能(リアクター単位体積あたりの電力約130 W m-3、バイオマス分解速度6 kg-COD m-3 d-1)を達成した。また、小型リアクターを用いた条件検討を実施し、更に嫌気性ミクロフローラの解析を行った結果、ミクロフローラ系による電気産生機構を示唆する貴重な知見を得るに至った。
H20年度以降は、人工廃水を基質とし、上記達成値の約4倍に当たる500 W m-3の出力を目標とし検討を継続するとともに、実廃水を用いた検討に着手している。
英文要約Kajima Corporation Title : Development of a Microbial Fuel Cell Generating Electricity from Waste Biomass (FY2006-FY2009) FY2008 Annual Report The recovery of bio-energy from waste biomass attracts much attention in promoting utilization of biomass. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been expected as a next-generation technology to efficiently generate a convenient energy, “electricity”, from waste biomass. The primary objective of this project is to develop a highly efficient MFC in order to recover electricity from organic wastes. A new MFC reactor that is equipped with cassette-type electrode was developed based on the latest technologies on both MFCs and high-performance anaerobic digestion process. The reactor has been operated using artificial organic wastes in order to collect fundamental engineering data. In the FY2008, basic studies were conducted in order to realize the primary objective by focusing on the following major subjects. [I. Optimization of Operational Conditions of MFC]  Operational parameters in continuous operation were examined using small-scale reactors equipped with air-cathode. During 180 days of operation, power output increased as the running time elapsed and 1.1 W/m3 of maximum output was obtained at 1.8 d of hydraulic retention time (HRT). Internal resistance (IR) of the reactor decreased as the electricity generation increased. The low IRs were observed when high COD removal was obtained. Several natural microflora were also investigated as seed culture for electricity generation. It was suggested that various natural microflora could be used to MFC as seed culture. [II. Efficiency Improvement of Electricity Generation] (Tokyo University) Separator material, installation method of separator and the amount of platinum as cathode catalysis were examined and optimized using cassette-electrode. These improvement brought about three times higher power density per cathode surface area (2 W m-2 or more). The optimized cassette electrode would be installed into bench-scale MFC and evaluated in the next FY. [III. Evaluation of Wastewater for Electricity Generation]  Electricity generation from wastewater from potato-‘shochu’ factory, which contains high concentration of solid materials, was investigated small-scale reactors equipped with air-cathode. During continuous operation at 6 to 3 d of HRT for 4 months, 16 mW m-3 of maximum power density was obtained while unidentified suspended solids were accumulated in the experimental system. This result suggests that the necessity of the solbilization process before MFC process. Characteristics of some industrial wastewater were also investigated in the literature survey.  [IV. Identification of Electrogens and Analyses of Electricity-generating Reactions]  By molecular ecological analysis of microflora in the bench-scale MFC reactor, it was found that microorganisms in the planktonic phase play important role in electricity-generating reactions. It was suggested that these planktonic microorganisms were more effective on electricity generation than the microorganisms in biofilm developed on anode.
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