成果報告書詳細
管理番号20090000000289
タイトル*平成20年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術研究開発 バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発) バイオマスガス化ー触媒液化による輸送用燃料(BTL)製造技術の研究開発
公開日2009/8/21
報告書年度2008 - 2008
委託先名独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー技術開発部 バイオマスグループ
和文要約以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等 1-1.研究の概要:本研究においては、バイオマスから効率よく輸送用液体燃料(BTLやBHD等の高品位軽油代替燃料)を製造するために、ガス化率向上とガス組成改善、脱硫工程の検討、触媒液化工程の改善に加えて、ガス化で副生するCH4,CO2のCO,H2への触媒変換工程の検討を行う。ガス化-液化実現における経済性確立のため、より安価で低品位のバイオマスを原料として用いることを検討する。またこれらの各検討項目から得られたデータを集積し、マスヒートバランスの検討を行い、システム効率向上を図る。本研究は、三菱重工業株式会社と共同で行われる。
英文要約Abstract Report: Fiscal Year 2008 Synthesis of Transportation Fuels by Biomass Gasification and Subsequent Catalytic Liquefaction by Fischer-Tropsch Reaction Objectives of Research  Establishment of sulfur-free and aroma-free bio-diesel fuels synthesis technologies are highly expected because of significant environmental benefits, such that they are carbon neutral, that they are stably storable and transferable, that they are available to the present infrastructures, that their combustion is less polluting, and that unused, wasted and non-food biomass, including agricultural and forestry residues, are usable as feedstock. In order to utilize these benefits and to improve the energy efficiency of the entire process, it is necessary to develop an integrated system capable of synthesizing gas and liquid fuels in low-cost and with high C-conversion rate. In this project, the biomass-to-liquid (BTL) synthesis system, consisting of entrained-flow gasification from unused and wasted biomass, gas purification at high temperature with high steam content, and Fisher-Tropsh (FT) reaction, has been studied. Besides improvement of each step, methane and tar reforming to increase and to improve syn-gas compositions is studied. Furthermore, mass-heat balance evaluation using experimental data enables to estimate energy efficiency of commercial-scale facilities and to optimize assembles. Results of 2008 FY(1) Gasification of low-grade Biomass Wastes.Low-grade biomass wastes, such as empty fruits bunch (EFB), bagasse and cedar bark, were gasified with gasification agents of steam with or without oxygen in an entrained-flow type gasifier. When steam and oxygen were used as gasification agents, EFB and bagasse were gasified very efficiently (C-equivalent gasification rates were higher than 95%) and gaseous compositions suitable for liquid fuel synthesis ([H2]/CO is about 2-2.5) were obtained. Solid residues obtained from gasification of EFB had different properties from those obtained from other biomass: their softening temperature were lower and part of them were adhered in the reactor, which required pre-treatment of feedstock or after-treatment of solid residues. Cedar bark was gasified less efficiently compared to EFB and bagasse (C-equivalent gasification rate was about 90%) and relative amounts of solid residues were produced. We have tried to gasify cedar bark, using additives and changing gasification conditions.(2) Reforming Catalyst of Methane and controlling compositions of Syn-Gas We have found that Ni/Zr catalyst had converted methane, produced in gasification, with H2O into CO and H2; consequently, methane concentration was reduced from 7.5% to 2%. However, this catalyst was deactivated in the presence of H2S in short time. We developed a guard catalyst in combination of the methane reforming catalyst and found that H2S-resistance was improved (5-25ppm). Gas obtained from biomass usually contains H2S of 100-200ppm, therefore, syn-gas containing H2S should be desulfurized furthermore before supplying to the methane reforming catalyst. (3) Desulfurizer for Syn-Gas Cleaning For effective use of energy and heat, the syn-gas with high steam content (>50%) at high temperature (600-800oC) has to be desulfurized. Any desulfurization agent available under such severe conditions has never been reported. We, at first, surveyed and found a certain inorganic hydrate, which desulfurized H2S of 60-70 ppm to several ppm at high temperature and with high steam content.
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