成果報告書詳細
管理番号20090000000301
タイトル*平成20年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術研究開発 バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発) セルロースエタノール高効率製造のための環境調和型統合プロセス開発
公開日2009/8/26
報告書年度2008 - 2008
委託先名月桂冠 Bioーenergy 大阪大学大学院工学研究科 京都大学 神戸大学 豊田中央研究所 関西化学機械製作 サントリーホールディングス 鹿島建設 東北大学 名古屋大学 早稲田大学 近畿バイオインダストリー振興会議 大阪大学
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー技術開発部 バイオマスグループ
和文要約以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果 現在、化石燃料の枯渇・地球温暖化防止の観点から、再生可能な植物性バイオマスからエタノールを製造するバイオリファイナリーに関して、前処理から製品分離に至る統合的なプロセス開発が急務となっている。本プロジェクトでは草本系バイオマスと木質系バイオマスをターゲットとし、1)水熱処理等による前処理、2)セルラーゼやヘミセルラーゼ細胞表層提示酵母(アーミング酵母)による糖化と、生成するペントース(C5 糖)とヘキソース(C6 糖)の発酵を高温(35-45℃)で同時に行うConsolidated bioprocessing(CBP)、3)省エネルギー型のエタノール濃縮プロセス、4)排水処理と残渣の有効利用まで、ブレークスルーのための要素技術開発を行うとともに、それらを統合した日本オリジナルな統合プロセス開発を目指す。
英文要約Title: Development of environmentally benign and consolidated process for efficient production of cellulosic ethanol (FY2008-FY2010) FY2008 Annual Report 1) Development of biomass processing technique that consists of partial decomposition and enzyme treatment after hydrothermal treatment The substantial problems were investigated for the purpose of raising the final material concentration up to around 14% in the fermentation stage. It has been found by the constituent analysis of the untreated rice straw and the rice straw treated by the heated high-pressure water that the sugar from the hemicellulose and the sugar from the cellulose are dissolved and decomposed by the pressurized thermal water pretreatment. Although the phenol-like compounds dissolved a little bit from lignin were detected, the majority of lignin was left in the treated residue. For the purpose of expression of the biomass-degradation enzyme encoding genes, sixteen promoter genes in Aspergillus oryzae genome database, were subcloned. Transcription activity was determined and was compared each other with reporter assay with uidA gene. To increase the efficiency of converting cellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, we attempted to improve the catalytic activity of cellulolytic enzymes by evolutionary protein engineering approaches. We have succeeded in increasing the catalytic activities of cellobiohydrolases using SIMPLEX method. 2) Simultaneous saccharification fermentation by using an arming yeast that displays both cellulase and hemicellulase on the surface of the cells In order to select the host yeast strain suitable for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), growth rates at 38 C of industrial strains obtained by Suntory Ltd. and Gekkeikan Sake Co., Ltd. were determined, and the 102 strains have been selected in the first screening. In order to develop a metabolome analysis system that contributes to breed yeasts for bioethanol production, sample preparation method for yeast cell, determination of internal standard used for instrumental analysis, and construction and practical application of analysis system for intracellular metabolites of yeast using GC-MS and CE-ME were examined.  3) Development of an energy-saving ethanol concentration/dehydration process by using advanced Heat Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC)  Regarding the energy-saving technology in production of dehydrated ethanol, the theoretical energy required for enriching the bio-ethanol mash (740 kg/hr, 5 wt% ethanol concentration) up to near the azeotropic point (94 wt% ethanol or more) has been analyzed by computer simulation. It has been found that if the number of stages is increased, the area of internal heat exchange is increased and the reflux ratio can be decreased, so the energy-saving rate is greatly increased. 4) Beneficial use of residues and development of effluent treatment technique  The CODcr value of discharged water generated from the process of cellulosic ethanol fermentation was expected to be high. Among organic acids accumulated in the process of hydrothermal treatment, acetate, formate, and lactate were expected to be present at high concentration.
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