成果報告書詳細
管理番号20090000001120
タイトル*平成20年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術研究開発/バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発)/未利用木質バイオマス(樹皮)の高効率糖化先導技術の開発
公開日2009/12/5
報告書年度2008 - 2008
委託先名国立大学法人名古屋大学
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー技術開発部 バイオマスグループ
和文要約以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等 樹皮糖化に適したオーダーメード麹菌による画期的な酵素糖化技術、および高効率で(酸・酵素)糖化可能なバイオマス資源樹木の育種技術を開発することとし、以下の5点から事業を推進した。 樹皮の酵素糖化技術の開発 1) 前処理方法の開発 グリセリンは3個の水酸基を有する親水性の低分子化合物であり、糖類との親和性が高いことが知られている。繊維工業などでは湿潤剤、膨潤剤などとして用いられることがある。本検討では、上記性質を利用し、木質バイオマスの酵素糖化における前処理添加薬剤として用いることを試みた。
英文要約Title:Development of Technology for High-efficiency Conversion of Biomass and Other Energy/Development of Preparatory Basic Bioenergy Technologies/ Development of Highly Efficient Saccharification of Unused Woody Biomass (Bark) (FY2006-FY2009) FY2008 Annual Report To improve the enzyme saccharification, we investigated the pretreatment method and found that hydrothermal reaction with glycerin was very effective procedure for Eucalyptus inner bark. XlnR-dependent transcription of xylanolytic and cellulolytic genes of Aspergillus oryzae is also induced by cellulose. Effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on production of cellulolytic enzymes was examined in the XlnR-overproducing strain. Specific cellulase activity of the CMC-induced enzymes was comparable to commercial T. reesei cellulase, and still possessed significantly high xylanase activity.  The saccharification yield measurement system for eucalyptus was examined to evaluate the variation of the saccharification difficulty, the evaluation system was established, and the evaluation began. The saccharification difficulty of eight species of eucalyptuses was confirmed. As a result, it was distinguished by two groups with different value. From the observation under a light microscope and a transmission electron microscope the inner bark treated with alkaline solution followed by treatment with cellulase showed remarkable degradation of inner part of S2 in phloem fibers. Fibers, in which the compound middle lamella was mechanically broken, showed not only the degradation of inner part of S2, but also the degradation of S1. Loosening of S1 caused by alkaline treatment may increase the accessibility of cellulase to the substrates. We analyzed the structure of bark and the amounts of stored starch in the bark because the characteristics of bark might affect the efficiency of saccharification. We used 23 different clones of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) trees and 7 different Eucalyptus species growing at the field nursery of Oji Paper Company in Kameyama and planted Eucalyptus globulus growing in Albany, South-West Australia. The differences in the amounts of starch among clones were closely related to the efficiency of saccharification by 45% H2SO4 in sugi. In contrast, the amounts of starch in Eucalyptus species might have minor effects on the efficiency of saccharification by 45% H2SO4. Structural change of crystalline cellulose during hydrothermal treatment in the presence of CO2 was investigated by means of spectroscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy. Eucalyptus bark treated in the same way was investigated in terms of accessibility on deuteration. It was found that the treatment at 175 °C with CO2 enhanced the penetration of deuterium into the crystalline region of cellulose. The cause of these phenomena seemed to be primarily due to the effective removal of hemicelluloses at this temperature in the presence of CO2.
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