成果報告書詳細
管理番号20090000000015
タイトル*平成20年度中間年報 固体高分子形燃料電池実用化戦略的技術開発 要素技術開発 高出力高耐久性炭化水素系膜/電極接合体(MEA)の研究開発
公開日2010/2/13
報告書年度2008 - 2008
委託先名株式会社日立製作所
プロジェクト番号P05011
部署名燃料電池・水素技術開発部 燃料電池グループ
和文要約以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等(研究開発の概要)PEFC(固体高分子形燃料電池)及びDMFC(直接メタノール方式燃料電池)の効率、耐久性を支配するMEA(膜/電極接合体)の触媒として高価で希少な白金や白金-ルテニウム合金等の貴金属が多量に使われている。PEFCやDMFCの実用化を図り、市場への本格的な普及を進めるため、この貴金属のリサイクルが必要である。これまでMEAは耐久性の観点からフッ素系電解質膜とフッ素系電解質バインダを用いてきた。
英文要約Title: Strategic Development of PEFC Technologies for Practical Application Development of Elemental Technology Research and Development of High Output Electric Power High Durability Hydrocarbon Polymer Electrolyte Membrane / Electrode Assembly (MEA) (FY2005-FY2009) FY2008 Annual Report
Hitachi, Ltd.
When MEA is burnt to recycle noble metal catalysts, fluoric compounds occur, since MEA consists of fluorine electrolyte membranes and fluorine binders. That is why the recycling is expensive. Using a hydrocarbon MEA, which does not contain fluorine, and which can therefore lower recycling costs, could have an impact on the success or failure of the full-scale spread of fuel cells. In the fuel-cell market, it is expected that DMFC power supplies of several watts capacity will be developed first, that subsequently, PEFC power supplies of several kilowatts capacity for decentralized cogeneration systems will be developed, and that PEFC power supplies of dozens of watts capacity for cars will subsequently be developed. In consideration of these market predictions, and of trends in the technical development of peripheral equipment, research and development was undertaken from fiscal year 2005 to fiscal year 2007 focusing on raising the electric power output and the durability of fluorine-less hydrocarbon MEAs for DMFCs. This will be applied to PEFCs from fiscal year 2007 to fiscal year 2009, and we plan to raise the electric power output and durability of fluorine-less hydrocarbon MEAs for PEFCs. In order to improve the power density and durability of hydrocarbon MEAs, we modified the binder, optimized the combination of catalyst and binder, and controlled the structure of the electrode.
(1) Development of hydrocarbon MEA
Performance of MEA using hydrocarbon binder is lower than that using fluorine binder. This is due to the low Pt electrochemically active surface area in the electrode. Comparing with electrodes using fluorine binder, the volume of surface pores of carbon supports using hydrocarbon binder is small, lowering gas diffusivity and electron conductivity. In order to increase Pt active area, we have developed the binder with a higher water contact angle. Modification of the molecular structure of hydrocarbon binder and the method of manufacturing successfully increased the Pt active area.
(2) Evaluation of PEFC performance
The knowledge obtained by the development of MEA for DMFC is being applied to MEA development for PEFC. In order to improve the durability of the MEA with a hydrocarbon binder, the molecular weight of the binder was attempted. By increasing the molecular weight at 2.5 times, the cell operation longer than 2000 hours and the start-and-stop more than 19000 cycles were realized.
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