成果報告書詳細
管理番号20100000000376
タイトル*平成21年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術研究開発 バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発) バイオ燃料の品質規格及び計量標準に関する研究開発
公開日2010/6/2
報告書年度2009 - 2009
委託先名独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー技術開発部 バイオマスグループ
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等
本研究開発では、2015-2020 年頃に実用化されるであろうエタノールおよびバイオディーゼル燃料に対し、品質規格と計量標準を策定し、JIS 規格および国際規格策定に貢献することを目的とする。具体的には[1]ガソリン混合用エタノールの品質規格に関する研究開発、[2]エタノール混合ガソリンの計量標準規格に関する研究開発、[3]バイオディーゼル燃料の品質規格とエンジン排出ガス特性に関する研究開発の3 テーマを実施している。
英文要約R&D for Quality and Measurement Standards of Bio-fuels
 The final aim of this project is to contribute to the domestic and international standardization of bio-fuels by establishing methods to evaluate the quality of bio-ethanol and biodiesel (BDF), by establishing methods to measure bio-ethanol, and through the monitoring of international standardization trends.
 In the standards of ASTM and JASO, pHe is picked up as one of the analysis item. By use of reagent grade ethanol (99.5%), pHe was measured to examine the quality according to the procedure cited in these standards. The value of pHe was in the range of standard but the much longer response time than the standard specified period was necessary in general. In order to clear this problem, ethanol-water mixture method was examined to shorten the measuring time.
 Experimental research of the metrological standard for ethanol flow meters was conducted. The Coriolis flow meter and the Small-Volume-Prover were tested as a flow standard to calibrate flow meter in an ethanol facility. It was confirmed that both of calibration methods were basically valid although some problems to be solved were extracted. Furthermore, characteristic of the flow meter for ethanol which was calibrated in alternative working liquid was investigated. Positive displacement meter, turbine meter and Coriolis meter were calibrated by several kinds of a working liquid (Water, Kerosene and Ethanol). The influence of liquid physical properties was revealed depending on types of flow meter. Calibration data to investigate of the appropriate calibration method of ethanol flow meter was collected.
Evaluation study of BDFs produced from jatropha oil was continued. When the BDE was synthesized carefully by transesterification, the oxidation stability cleared the EAS-ERIA standard (10h) and showed the good quality in oxidation stability. By use of GC-MS, the BDFs were analyzed to quantify the fatty acid methyl ester components before and after the oxidation stability tests. Difference in the oxidation behaviors of BDFs by PetroOXY from that of Rancimat was discussed through the analysis study.
 The main toxins, phorbol esters, of Jatropha oil are irritant effects and tumour-promoting properties. These toxins were altered by transesterification process.
 Emission characteristics of JIS#2 diesel and JME of a single cylinder engine with a common-rail type fuel injection system were investigated. Regardless of fuels, the increase in EGR rate could suppress NOx and the increase in fuel injection pressure could decrease PM. JME could form less Smoke and PM compared with JIS#2 diesel under various conditions of EGR rate and fuel injection pressure. The influence of a small amount of alkali components (K, Na) included in the FAME to the exhaust gas purification performance of the diesel oxidation catalyst was investigated. It could be concluded that the negative influence of the alkaline component for diesel oxidation catalyst activity is almost negligible, since the activity was not decreased by the presence of each metal component.
 IEA Task 40 / ERIA Joint Workshop was organized with the theme of “Trade activities and opportunities for liquid and solid biofuels in the SE Asian region and implications for policy”.
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