成果報告書詳細
管理番号20100000001597
タイトル*平成21年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術研究開発 バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発) 低圧固定床用FT触媒技術を利用したBTLプロセスの研究開発
公開日2010/9/30
報告書年度2009 - 2009
委託先名コスモ石油株式会社 トヨタ自動車株式会社 独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー技術開発部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1.研究開発の内容及び成果等 1-1.事業概要 バイオマス燃料は化石燃料よりコスト競争力に乏しいことが導入普及のネックとなっている。本事業では、食料と競合しないセルロース系バイオマスを用い、低圧下での固定床用フィッシャー・トロプシュ(以下、FTと記す)触媒技術を利用して低コストにバイオ燃料油を製造するBTL(Biomass to Liquid)プロセスに関する研究開発を実施する。本研究では、触媒活性と触媒表面構造等の関連性や劣化機構を含めたFT合成反応の機構的検討を実施し、低圧固定床式FT合成プロセスに適用し得る優れたFT合成触媒の開発を目指す。また、BTL油の燃料油としての実用性の評価を行うとともに、ガス化プロセス等を含めたBTLプロセス全体について総合的に検討し、エネルギー効率や経済性、更にはBTLのライフサイクルの評価を実施する。
英文要約Title : New Energy Technology Development Project. High Efficiency Bioenergy Conversion Project. Development of Preparatory Basic Bioenergy Technologies. Development of BTL Process Using Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalyst for Low-pressure Fixed-bed Reactor (FY2009 - FY2010) FY2009 Annual Report A biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process is attracting attention. However, considering collection of bulky biomass, further improvement of BTL process would be required from economical point of view. Thus, a more efficient conversion technology is a key. Toward developing an advanced BTL process, efforts will be made to develop a highly active FT synthesis catalyst. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation of the BTL process as a biomass utilization technology will be carried out.:1a. Development of FT Catalyst for Fixed-Bed Reactor:A catalyst for fixed-bed reactor should be pellets. We found that catalyst powder is pelletized by using some additives. But the additive we used influenced on the CO conversion activity. Appropriate water content could be reduced the amount of additive and accomplished the same CO conversion as the powder catalyst.:1b. Analysis of FT Catalyst:Using fixed-bed reactor at 1MPa, FT reaction was carried out over Ru-based catalysts at 503K. At initial stage of reaction, CO conversion was 75% and C5+ yield was 55% with CH4 selectivity of 10%. But after 24h-reaction, the CO conversion and C5+ yield fell to 45% and 26%, but CH4 selectivity increased to 20%. Investigation of XRD data of used catalysts showed that active metallic Ru species are still present on the used catalyst surface. This indicates that catalyst deactivation would not be due to an oxidation of metallic Ru by H2O as a by-product.:2a. Gasification of Biomass:From DTA analysis of the biomass and ash analysis, we found that gasification temperature should be controlled from 800 to 900 deg C. The gasification results of laboratory equipment showed H2/CO ratio higher than 2 whereas the demonstration plant showed H2/CO ratio lower than 2. These differences were thought to be the difference of temperature.:2b. Removal of Impurities in the Biomass-derived Gas:FT catalyst could undergo poisoning by sulfur compounds contained in the biomass derived gas as impurities. Content of sulfur compounds was approximately 10-20ppm and the main components were COS and CS2.:2c. Development of Fixed-Bed FT Reactor:In the design of a fixed-bed FT reactor, control of exothermic reaction is important. There are two approaches: One is to dilute the catalyst with inert materials. Another is to use a double tube reactor, and catalyst is filled up inside tube, while, in the outside tube, cooling oil flows. We have just introduced those two types of reactors.
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