成果報告書詳細
管理番号20100000001693
タイトル*平成21年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術研究開発 バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発) 乾燥ストレス耐性改良型ヤトロファの創出とその機能評価に関する研究開発
公開日2010/9/30
報告書年度2009 - 2009
委託先名国立大学法人大阪大学 住友電気工業株式会社
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー技術開発部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1.研究開発の内容及び成果等
(1). 耐乾燥性の高い形質転換ヤトロファの作製(担当:大阪大学)
1-1. 形質転換実験に用いるJatropha curcas L.(ヤトロファ)系統の選定
<これまでの成果>
次世代バイオディーゼル燃料植物であるヤトロファの遺伝子改変品種の作出のための親品種としての系統選択を行った。その条件には、油脂含量および、発芽率、生育に優れるといった生理学的な点と、論文発表および特許申請の際に他の権利関係から自由であることも重要なファクターとして考慮した。
その結果、タイ原産のヤトロファ品種を選択した。
英文要約Title: Research and Development for Creation and Evaluation of Drought Tolerant Jatropha (FY2009-FY2010) FY2009 Annual Report.
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is an alternative biomass energy plant which produces biodiesel fuel. This research aims at enhancing the drought stress tolerance of Jatropha using the genetic modification technology. (Theme 1): Establishment of Jatropha curcas transgenic lines with increased drought tolerance. A Jatropha line of Thai origin was selected for genetic modification, which was provided by collaborators at Tottori University. In order to establish an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, the concentrations of plant growth regulators in the tissue culture medium, as well as the pre-treatment step before transformation were optimized. Glycine betaine (GB) accumulation in the cell is known to be effective in enhancing drought tolerance in plants. GB synthesis is catalyzed by two enzymes, glycine sarcosine methyltransferase (GSMT) and dimethyl glycine methyltransferase (DMT). To introduce GB synthesis pathway in Jatropha, genes encoding GSMT and DMT were cloned from the halotolerant cyanobacteria Synechococcus WH8102 and introduced into binary vectors. Furthermore, it was reported that overexpression of the nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta (NF-YB) increases drought tolerance in Arabidopsis and maize. Based on the Jatropha genome sequence analysis, some homologues of NF-YB genes were found. To overexpress the novel NF-YB genes in Jatropha, these genes were cloned into binary vector and transformed into Jatropha. Moreover, coenzyme A is an unnecessary cofactor for the metabolism of cells. Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) is an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the coenzyme A. It was reported that in the plant overexpressing PPAT, the level of coenzyme A accumulation was increased and the halotolerance was improved. To overexpress PPAT in Jatropha, the Arabidopsis PPAT gene was introduced into the binary vector and introduced into Jatropha. After transformation, the explants were cultured and some regenerated callus and shoots are now being grown. (Theme 2): Growth evaluation of Jatropha curcas lines under controlled dry stress condition using the sandponics cultivation system. For the evaluation of drought tolerance in Jatropha transgenic lines, the automatically-controlled sandponics cultivation system, will be set up in a greenhouse at the University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB). Upon inspection of the greenhouse, including its electricity and water supply, it was found that the system can be installed without any problem. The controller and materials for the system were already prepared in Japan, and will be transported to UPLB. (Theme 3): Selective breeding of Jatropha varieties. Native Jatropha lines will be evaluated for drought tolerance by using the sandponics system. Prior to the research, a Jatropha plantation in Mindanao Island was inspected to gather information on the cultivation of Jatropha in native field conditions.
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