成果報告書詳細
管理番号20110000000431
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術研究開発 バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発) バイオ燃料植物ヤトロファの油脂生産最適化技術の開発
公開日2011/6/7
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名株式会社植物ハイテック研究所 国立大学法人奈良先端科学技術大学院大学 国立大学法人琉球大学
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1.研究開発の内容及び成果等 本事業では、バイオ燃料植物ヤトロファの油脂生産を最適化するための技術開発を行うことを目的に、以下の6項目を平成22年度末までの設定目標とし研究開発を行った。すなわち、(1)ヤトロファ種子が成熟する過程における、脂質組成および脂質合成系の主要遺伝子の発現変化を経時的に解析し、脂質合成に関与する遺伝子制御の全体像を解明する、(2)前項により得られた脂肪酸代謝制御情報を活用し、代謝工学により種子脂肪酸組成を改良した形質転換ヤトロファの開発を行う、(3)脂肪酸合成経路における鍵酵素を増強するために、種子のプラスチドでより強い発現を示すプロモーターを調査・同定する、(4)脂肪酸合成経路acetyl-CoAカルボキシラーゼ遺伝子のプロモーター配列を強化した、ヤトロファ・プラスチド形質転換体を開発する、(5)植物成長調節剤の処方および樹形管理により、ヤトロファの果実収量および着果時期を人為的に制御するための技術開発を行う、(6)ヤトロファ栽培において大量に産出される非油脂バイオマス画分(搾油かす・葉・茎・果肉等)の潜在的に豊富なバイオマス資源について、これらの素材を安全処理し、エネルギーおよび化学資源として有効活用するための技術基盤を開発する。
英文要約title:
Optimization of bio-diesel production in Jatropha curcas
Groups:
Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Plant High-Tech Institute
University of the Ryukyus
Summary
Jatropha curcas produces a large amount of lipid-containing seeds in the arid areas, and is regarded as the most promising resource for bio-diesel production in the near future. To maximize its productivity, fortification of its lipid biosynthesis and development of the protocols for efficient biomass utilization are expected. This project aims at the optimization of bio-diesel production in Jatropha seeds. The strategies involve; (i) fortification of Jatropha lipid production by plastid engineering, (ii) metabolic profiling and engineering of Jatropha seed lipids, and (iii) development of the protocols for processing and utilization of Jatropha seed biomass. As a result of the research, following achievements have been made so far.
(1) To understand the blueprint of the molecular mechanism of lipid biosynthesis in the fruit of this plant, we performed comprehensive analyses on the expression profile of lipid biosynthetic genes and the pattern of metabolite accumulation during fruit development from post-anthesis to the maturation phase. Consequently, it was revealed that the fruit lipid content increased rapidly at the final phase of the fruit maturation. The next-generation sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that a set of lipid biosynthetic genes were coordinately up-regulated at the final phase of the fruit maturation. These results suggested that the orchestrated transcriptional regulation of the lipid biosynthetic genes may play a pivotal role in the massive lipid accumulation in the developing Jatropha fruit.
(2) Taking advantage of the large-scale genetic information obtained by the above-mentioned sequencing, we constructed a set of vectors for engineering the lipid biosynthetic metabolism in Jatropha. Two strategies were employed in the metabolic engineering: In the first strategy, AccD gene for the rate-limiting step in the fatty acid biosynthesis was up-regulated for the fortification of the lipid contents. In the second strategy, FAD2 gene for delta-12 desaturase was down-regulated for increasing the amount of oleic acid in the seeds. Consequently, we successfully generated a group of transgenic Jatropha plants in which the desired vector constructs have been integrated in the genome.
(3) During the production of Jatropha seed oils, a large amount of non-oil biomass such as seed cakes, shells, leaves and stems are generated. As a first step to establish the technology for the efficient Jatropha biomass utilization, physicochemical properties of the respective organs in the Jatropha tree were systematically analyzed. This analysis demonstrated that not only seed cakes but also pruned stems had very high calories, suggesting that these biomass is potentially suitable for the solid-type fuels. Optimal conditions were investigated for the generation of bio-chars from the respective Jatropha biomass. Chemical analysis of the chars from seed cakes and shells showed that they were rich in nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, suggesting that these chars are potential source as a soil fertilizer for sustainable Jatropha plantation. Moreover, decomposition of a toxic compound phorbor ester was confirmed by the carbonization of the Jatropha biomass.
Overall, the results obtained from this research activity have offered a technical platform for the optimization of Jatropha seed oil. In particular, the large-scale gene expression data and the techniques for metabolic engineering demonstrated in this study will be of significant values for the optimization of Jatropha seed production in the future. Further advancement of the research will contribute to the realization of the biomass industry based on the Jatropha seed production.
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