成果報告書詳細
管理番号20110000000768
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術開発 バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発) エネルギー植物の形質転換技術及び組換え植物栽培施設での栽培技術の研究開発
公開日2011/6/29
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名国立大学法人筑波大学 国立大学法人千葉大学
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1. 研究開発の内容及び成果等 バイオマス転換エネルギーの効率的生産のため、非食糧系エネルギー植物の遺伝子組換えを利用した改良に大きな期待が寄せられている。しかし、これらの非食糧系エネルギー植物の形質転換技術に関する研究は乏しく、形質転換技術の活用による改良が困難な状況にある。我々は、これまでに難形質転換植物の克服を可能にすると期待されるスーパーアグロバクテリウムを開発してきた。スーパーアグロバクテリウムとは、アグロバクテリウムを介した植物への遺伝子導入の際、感染時に植物体が生成する制御因子として知られているエチレン生成を抑制する能力が付与されたアグロバクテリウムのことをいう。これによって、植物への遺伝子導入能力を向上させることに成功した。本研究開発では、このスーパーアグロバクテリウムを活用した非食糧系エネルギー植物の形質転換技術の開発及び組換え植物栽培施設での栽培技術の開発を目指す。
英文要約Title: R&D of Genetic Transformation and Cultivation Technology for Energy Plants (FY2009-FY2012) FY 2010 Annual Report
Genetic engineering is a key technology for efficient biomass energy production from potential energy plants such as Erianthus and napiergrass. However, the genetic transformation for these plants is limed and not available so far. In addition, the cultivation and assessment technologies of the potential energy plants in genetically modified-plant (GMP) facilities are also not available. This R&D aims to improve the super-Agrobacterium that can possibly enhance the transformation frequency of the potential energy plants, and to develop cultivation and assessment technologies for the potential energy plants in GMP facilities. 1) Advancement of super-Agrobacterium: Original super-Agrobacterium is holding ACC deaminase gene as a plasmid. In this study, we aim to integrate the ACC deaminase gene into Agrobacterium genome that makes the handling of super-Agrobacterium to be easier for the users. Up to second year, we have developed a homologous recombination method in Agrobacterium strain GV2260, and have succeeded in producing the new super-Agrobacterium strain with ACC deaminase gene in the genome. The new super-Agrobacterium strain stably maintained the ACC deminase gene during cultures, compared to the original super-Agrobacterium with ACC deaminase as a plasmid. However, the mRNA expression of ACC deaminase gene in the new super-Agrobacterium is lower than that in the original super-Agrobacterium, resulting in lower ACC deaminase activity. We are currently trying to increase the mRNA expression in the new super-Agrobacterium. 2) Effective utilization technology of super-Agrobacterium: We aim to develop the culture systems of potential energy plants, Erianthus, Miscanthus, Pennisetum, Panicum and Saccharum for genetic transformation. Up to this year, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration methods were established in Erianthus, Miscanthus, Pennisetum and Saccharum, utilizing proliferating leaf segments and seeds. Although the transformation frequency is low, we also have been succeeded in generating transgenic plants of Miscanthus and Pennisetum using normal Agrobacterium. In the following years, we will develop efficient culture systems for the other energy plants and high-throughput genetic transformation methods using the new super-Agrobacterium strains. 3) Cultivation technology of energy plants in GMP cultivation facilities: To develop cultivation and assessment technologies of the potential energy plants in GMP facilities, using non-transformed plants of Sorghum bicolor and Erianthus ravannae, acclimatization of in vitro plants, vegetative propagation, and flower induction in containment culture room and screened greenhouse were tested. Acclimatization of in vitro plants and flower induction in containment culture room and screened greenhouse was established in Sorghum bicolor. Acclimatization of in vitro plants and vegetative propagation in containment culture room and screened greenhouse was established in Erianthus ravannae. In the following years, we will grow the potential energy plants in a closed field for GMP. The results will provide the significant information for handling transgenic potential energy plants.
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