成果報告書詳細
管理番号20110000000921
タイトル*平成22年度中間年報 新エネルギー技術研究開発 バイオマスエネルギー等高効率転換技術開発(先導技術開発) 酵素糖化・効率的発酵に資する基盤研究
公開日2011/6/7
報告書年度2010 - 2010
委託先名(財)バイオインダストリー協会 (独)産業技術総合研究所 (独)製品評価技術基盤機構 花王(株) 日揮(株) Meiji Seikaファルマ(明治製菓)(株) 長岡技術科学大学 京都大学 信州大学 東京大学 (独)森林総合研究所 大阪府立大学 三重大学 (財)岩手生物工学研究センター (独)農業・食品産業技術総合研究機構食品総合研究所 (独)農業生物資源研究所 熊本大学 君が淵学園崇城大学
プロジェクト番号P07015
部署名新エネルギー部
和文要約和文要約等以下本編抜粋:1.研究開発の内容および成果等
加速的先導技術開発は,2015-2020 年頃バイオマスエネルギーの普及に重要とされるセルロース系バイオマス資源からバイオエタノールを40 円/リットルで製造することや軽油代替燃料開発ための一貫プロセス開発を目的としている。本基盤研究は,加速的先導技術開発の1テーマとして、セルロース系バイオマスからエタノールおよびブタノール燃料製造に関する基盤的研究を行うことによって,加速的先導技術開発の一貫プロセス開発を実施しているグループを支援することが目的である。
本年度は以下の4つの研究開発項目を18 の委託先(以下、「メンバー」という。)で連携しながら実施した。
研究開発項目i) では、共通基盤として標準とするバイオマス調製法ならびに酵素評価法を確立した。
スギ、ユーカリ、稲わら、エリアンサスの4種のバイオマス原料について、各種前処理後のミクロ構造変化や成分変化と糖化性能との関連を統計解析し,近赤によるハイスループット評価システムを構築した。さらにバイオマスと酵素・タンパク質の吸脱着に関する成分酵素の挙動やその速度論的解析、また薬品添加による酵素回収率の向上など、「糖化における頭打ち現象*1)」の打開に向けた研究を実施した。また、有用酵素およびタンパク質の結晶化と構造解析に成功し、高機能化への道筋を示した。
英文要約 Title: Basic Research & Development on Enzymatic Saccharification of
Cellulosic Resources and Biofuel Production : (FY2009-FY2011)
FY2010 Annual Report
  This R&D objective is to develop innovative means for converting renewable
lignocellulosic biomass to practical liquid fuels such as bioethanol and alternative
light oil (diesel). To achieve this, the R&D is implemented for selecting of
enzymes, proteins and genes in improving saccharification of biomass and breeding
of C6/C5 fermenting yeast for bioethanol, and making the new platform micro-
organism for biobutanol, to support the integrated process development group.  
  The third fiscal year (2010/4-2011/3), 18 contractors (the "Members"
hereinafter called.) conducted jointly the following four themes of R & D.
R & D Theme i) Standard preparation conditions of pretreated biomasses
and evaluation of saccharifying enzymes on the market using the pretreated
biomasses were established as common foundations. High-throughput evaluation
system of pretreated biomasses was built by the near infrared spectroscopy for four
types of biomass feedstock, Sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica),
Eucalyptus globulus, Erianthus spp. and rice straw, through statistical analysis of
the relationships between composition changes and saccharification ratio before
and after the pretreatments. Kinetic analysis of adsorption-desorption behavior of
enzyme on biomass, saccharifying ability of the enzyme components in pretreated
biomasses and enzyme recovery by the addition of additives were performed to
relax "the phenomenon of reaching the saccharification limit when using low
enzyme concentration" for the breakthrough studies in the saccharification. The
successful crystallization and structural analysis of useful enzymes and proteins
showed the road to high performance.

R & D Theme ii) Novel saccharification-related enzymes and genes from
various sources were explored using metagenome, metatranscriptome and isolation
technology of fungi. Screening and evaluation was performed especially in terms of
accelerated biomass saccharification efficiency using Trichoderma enzymes as a
base enzyme. As a result, beta-glucosidases (4 types), two cellobiohydrolases and
other hemicellulases were detected to be enzymes for futher investigation.

  R & D Theme iii) To improve the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification and
to construct higher functional enzyme, 13 sub-themes were carried out by each
member including outsourcing. Cloning the gene related to saccharification
enzymes components and heterologous expression of the genes using various
host-vector systems were conducted by many members, and they were subjected to
a uniform evaluation.
Using recombinant technology, higher functional enzymes than the one
reported last year, having enhanced beta-glycosidase activity, were prepared,
being based on constructing a second stage high-performance enzyme system.

  R & D Theme iv) For the study of creation of highly functional yeast strains
useful to the fermentation of C6 ~ C5 sugars, diploid strains with acid- and
thermo-tolerant and improved xylose metabolism were produced by classical
mutation. The candidate genes on acid-tolerant mutation were idetified by
bioinformatics using a next generation DNA sequencer.
  In the research on building of a new platform for microbial butanol
fermentation, the genes involved in butanol and isobutanol tolerance and
physiological properties of the resistant organisms were clarified.
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